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Using reporting language in summaries

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As mentioned, a necessary feature of a summary is the use of reporting words (e.g. "Plato argues that..."; "Singer's view is that...").

Study the sample summary of Judith Jarvis Thomson's argument again. Can you identify any examples of reporting?

Sample summary from student essay

[1] In her argument, Judith Jarvis Thomson concentrates on the issue of the right of a woman, in a situation of unwanted pregnancy, to decide what happens to her body. [2] She believes that choosing abortion, or the death of the foetus, is justifiable. [3] In arguing for this position, she begins by conceding that the foetus is a person from the moment of conception, and uses the analogy of an unconscious violinist. [4] Imagine waking up in a hospital - Thomson suggests - to find yourself plugged into another person. [5] The Society of Music Lovers kidnapped you after discovering that you are the only medically compatible person available to save their best violinist. [6] They connected his circulatory system to your kidneys to extract poison form his system, and if you unplug him he will die.

[7] The point of Thomson's example is to show that if you voluntarily find yourself in a position where someone's survival depends on your continuing to support them for an extended period, you are not morally obliged to continue unless you implicitly or explicitly agree. [8] In relation to pregnancy, she likens this idea to being pregnant through coercion or even failed contraception. [9] If the pregnancy was not actively sought or wanted, the mother should be under no obligation to continue because, although she may not accept that the foetus is a person like the violinist, its right to life should not be at the expense of the rights of an unwilling 'body donor'. [10] In attempting to explain the similarities of a situation of dependence, Thomson aims to establish that a person's right to life is not necessarily strong enough to override someone's right over their own body.

1. In which sentences from the summary above can you find examples of reporting expressions? (The first has been done for you, but be careful because not all sentences have reporting words.)





















2. Why do you think these expressions are so important in a summary?



Check your answers

Reporting expressions are important:

  1. to show clearly whose idea you are dealing with at this point in your essay
  2. to indicate the mode of argumentation being used by the writer, e.g. believing; conceding; using analogies, giving examples, etc.

Reporting expressions can be found in Sentences 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 10. In the sample summary they are shown in bold.

Sample summary from student essay

[1] In her argument, Judith Jarvis Thomson concentrates on the issue of the right of a woman, in a situation of unwanted pregnancy, to decide what happens to her body. [2] She believes that choosing abortion, or the death of the foetus, is justifiable. [3] In arguing for this position, she begins by conceding that the foetus is a person from the moment of conception, and uses the analogy of an unconscious violinist. [4] Imagine waking up in a hospital - Thomson suggests - to find yourself plugged into another person. [5] The Society of Music Lovers kidnapped you after discovering that you are the only medically compatible person available to save their best violinist. [6] They connected his circulatory system to your kidneys to extract poison form his system, and if you unplug him he will die.

[7] The point of Thomson's example is to show that if you voluntarily find yourself in a position where someone's survival depends on your continuing to support them for an extended period, you are not morally obliged to continue unless you implicitly or explicitly agree. [8] In relation to pregnancy, she likens this idea to being pregnant through coercion or even failed contraception. [9] If the pregnancy was not actively sought or wanted, the mother should be under no obligation to continue because, although she may not accept that the foetus is a person like the violinist, its right to life should not be at the expense of the rights of an unwilling 'body donor'. [10] In attempting to explain the similarities of a situation of dependence, Thomson aims to establish that a person's right to life is not necessarily strong enough to override someone's right over their own body.

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