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Exploring essay structure

The table below shows the structure of a sample essay written on the 'flood hypothesis' topic. The essay is generally well organised with the following overall structure:

  1. Introduction
  2. Brown's argument
  3. Schadewald's argument
  4. Conclusion

Scan the paragrah structure within B and C (the body). You will notice they are made up mainly of summary sections and evaluation sections, or a combination of the two ( summary + evaluation).

You will also notice a number of gaps to be filled in.

  1. Click on the highlighted text to view the paragraph content.
  2. Decide whether the content of the paragraph is summary, evaluation, or summary + evaluation.
  3. Select the appropriate item for your answer.
Essay structure quiz
Sample essay
paragraph structure
A. Introduction
1 Introduction to Brown and Schadewald's arguments
2 Definition of scientific evidence
B. Brown's argument
3 Introduction to Brown's argument
4 Summary of argument
5
6
7 Summary + Evaluation of P3
8
C. Schadewalds' argument
9 Introduction to Schadewald's arguments
10
11
12 Evaluation of P3 and P4
13 Evaluation of other arguments
14 D. Conclusion

Paragraph 1

Walter Brown proposes a "scientific case for creation" as it is described in Genesis. Within this argument he attempts to demonstrate that the Bible's account of a worldwide deluge is accurate. Robert Schadewald's "Six 'Flood' Arguments Creationists Can't Answer", disputes particular creationist views, but only as a means of demonstrating the lack of testing behind creationist theories and hence their unscientific foundations.

Paragraph 2

What constitutes scientific foundations? Perhaps something originating from a process of observation, formation of an explanation or hypothesis, and conduction of controlled, repeatable testing of this hypothesis. Scientific evidence could be defined as the results obtained from such a process.

Paragraph 3

Since Brown's flood argument serves as a premise toward his overall conclusion that "the scientific evidence concerning origins supports the creation model", assessment of his evidence (presented as numbered categories) will depend largely on how scientifically reliable it is. For these purposes every effort will be made to ignore the multitude of flaws within his argument which are irrelevant to the issue of scientific evidence.

Paragraph 4

The basic outline of Brown's argument can be summarised as follows:

P1: Archaeological evidence indicates that Noah's Ark probably exists

P2: Many of the Earth's previously unexplainable features can be explained only by this flood.

P3: The Seemingly Impossible Events of a Worldwide Flood Are Really Quite Plausible if Examined Closely.

C1: The Earth has experienced a worldwide flood

...[other premises]

Paragraph 5

P1 depends on Brown's categories 83-91. These categories rely on mentions and reports of the Ark's existence (83), reports of sightings of the Ark protruding from ice on Mt. Ararat (84, 86, 87,88,89), and the reported existence of photographs depicting the Ark protruding from ice (90, 91). If, for the sake of argument, we attempted to express these categories scientifically, we might say that person A saw something sticking out of ice on Mr. Ararat. A explained the existence of this something by saying that it was Noah's Ark. This would be A's hypothesis. Now the crux of the issue is did A test this hypothesis? Not according to Brown's categories, hence A's belief does not constitute scientific evidence. By this reasoning none of categories 83-91 offers scientific proof, and they certainly don't entail the existence of Noah's Ark.

Paragraph 6

P2 asserts that that a worldwide flood is the only explanation for certain geological features of Earth, including "continental drift, mountains, and ocean trenches". Neglecting that these features are in fact explained by the theories of plate tectonics (so a deluge is not the only explanation), a declaration that these phenomena "can be viewed as direct consequences of a ... [worldwide] flood" may (if we are feeling particularly generous) constitute a hypothesis, but certainly not scientific evidence.

Paragraph 7

The categories supporting P3 suffer similar flaws. That "every mountain range on the earth contains fossils of sea life" is a scientifically proven and accepted fact. This sentence doesn't even constitute a hypothesis, because it doesn't aim to explain anything. No stretch of the imagination can label it 'scientific evidence'.

Paragraph 8

In short, Brown's 'categories' are not scientific evidence (it could even be argued that they aren't evidence, but that's another matter). They do not entail the premises which they are intended to support, hence we cannot accept Brown's conclusion, that "the earth has experienced a worldwide flood".

Paragraph 9

Brown's weakness, his lack of scientific evidence, is Robert Schadewald's subject. Schadewald attempts to draw attention to the lack of scientific foundation in creationist doctrines by actually testing creationist hypotheses. Schadewald leads us from specific "well-known creationist" hypotheses, through calculations based on simple mathematical or physical laws and from these tests, concludes the hypotheses are fallacious. Upon first glance this may seem compelling, but let us consider one example in more depth.

Paragraph 10

Schadewald's first objection to creationist explanations can be summarised thus:

P1: Creationists believe the number of fossils in 'fossil graveyards' is evidence for the flood.

P2: Fossils indicate there were n creatures

P3: If n creatures were simultaneously resurrected, they would take up x amount of space.

P4: The Earth's surface area is less than x

C1: Creationists are wrong.

Paragraph 11

Firstly, can we accept P1? Do creationists actually hold this view? Walter Brown offered us 108 views (and those final few were certainly grasping at straws), surely he would have included this one if he had considered it legitimate. Suppose we accept that P1 is a creationist doctrine. Taken out of context as it is, we cannot interpret how creationists see the number of fossils in 'fossil graveyards' as evidence. Schadewald could easily be misrepresenting the creationist stance here and go undetected.

Paragraph 12

P3 assumes that all the fossilised creatures were alive simultaneously. As observed by Martin Doepke, Schadewald hasn't accounted for creatures dying (and becoming fossilised) before or after the alleged flood. As this would decrease the number of creatures resurrected at the time of the flood, overcrowding may no longer be an issue. P4 would be false, and the premises would not entail the conclusion. It emerges that without careful definition of P3, this argument is invalid: it is possible for all premises to be true and the conclusion false.

Paragraph 13

In this light, at least the first of Schadewald's arguments is not particularly compelling. His second argument (and the third to a lesser extent) suffers the same flaw. His fourth and fifth arguments seem credible, but his sixth argues as Brown attempted to. Schadewald asserts that geologists have a good explanation for overturned strata. However he stops here, without offering this alleged explanation for us to judge.

Paragraph 14

Certainly Schadewald's arguments offer more substance than Brown's: he actually makes some attempt to explain his beliefs. Brown's 'evidence' is little more than a series of declarations and circumstances. It is the selective nature of Schadewald's explanations which detract from the merit of his objections, both to specific flood hypotheses and to unscientific creationist methods.

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