Accessible version | Skip to content | Change your text size

Table of contents

Previous pageNext page

Citing and referencing

Another term for referencing is citation - i.e. you are citing the work of someone else.

How do I know when to acknowledge something from another source?

This depends to a large extent on what is understood to be the given information in a particular field or discipline. For example, in Marketing it is accepted that there are macroeconomic forces which act on the microenvironment. You would not need to cite a reference in support of that.

In the following extracts from student assignments, where should a reference to a source be included? Click on the Task Feedback at the end.

Extract Your answers Correct Answer

Demographic factors which influence segmentation include, for example, age, family size, income and occupation. REF1? These variables are very important to Ford when determining a target market as they are factors which are very closely linked to the specific needs and wants of customers. REF2? Age is an important factor taken into consideration by Ford in determining target markets. REF3? The Falcon is typically targeted at middle-aged men and women with children. REF4?

REF1





REF2





REF3





REF4





REF1: No

Understanding that there is a range of demographic factors or variables is a "given" in Marketing; thus, there is no need to reference

REF2: No

The fact that Ford makes use of these variables in determining their target market is hardly surprising - it is part of the given understanding in the discipline. No need to reference.

REF3: Yes

Why should age be of particular importance? The student must have got this piece of information from somewhere: thus, it needs to be referenced.

REF4: Yes

Why should this particular group be Ford's target market? A reference is needed to support the claim.

The common pricing strategy for the Ford Explorer is value pricing, a strategy that attempts to offer customers the perfect combination of good service at an acceptable price for their specific needs. REF1? This strategy has been used considerably by Ford for most of its other product lines, and the trend is catching on around the automobile industry, as there is growing customer demand. REF2? However, other pricing strategies are often implemented in combination with value pricing. REF3?

REF1





REF2





REF3



REF1: No

It could be argued that this is a specific policy adopted by Ford and thus would need to be referenced. However, the point would be understood by anybody who stopped to think for a moment about how that type of car would be priced. Hence a reference is not necessary, only optional.

REF2: Yes

The notion of there being "growing demand" needs documented evidence.

REF3: No

If this were the end of the paragraph, this may need supporting evidence. However, in the original student assignment, as there was a sentence following giving an example, the reference was included at that point.

The Smith's company targets Australian families of all ages who have high incomes. REF1? The marketing mix elements are used to help the company produce the response it wants from its target market. REF2? The marketing mix is the specific combination of interrelated and interdependent marketing activities engaged in by an organisation. REF3? The basic elements of the marketing mix are product, price, place and promotion. REF4? These elements are also referred to as marketing's controllable variables. REF5?

REF1





REF2





REF3





REF4





REF5





REF1 Yes

This is special knowledge which must have come from some source.

REF2: No

The fact that Smith's makes use of the marketing mix elements is not unexpected - it is part of the given understanding in the discipline. No need to reference.

REF3: Yes

This is a definition which would have come from a source; thus, it needs a reference.

REF4: No

Although, this is a separate sentence from the next, it is referring to the same thing and thus REF5 can apply to both.

REF5: Yes

A reference is required to cover this and the preceeding sentence - referring to a key marketing definition.

Promotion is also an integral part of Qantas as they are Australia's leading airline brand. REF1? The kangaroo represents a proud history focused on reliability, safety, engineering excellence and customer service. REF2? Qantas has launched a new television advertising campaign using some of the world's most spectacular landmarks as the backdrop and featuring more than 200 members of the Australian choir. REF3? This was done as Qantas supports more than 240 individual sporting organisations throughout Australia and the world. REF4? Through this, they are creating a strong world-wide brand name. REF5?

REF1





REF2





REF3





REF4





REF5





REF1: No

This is probably accepted widely enough not to require a reference.

REF2: Yes

This sounds rather as if it is from Qantas advertising and thus would require a reference.

REF3: No

This is evident from everyday observation.

REF4: Yes

This is specific information, requiring a reference.

REF5: No

This is arguably a reasonable representation of common opinion, so probably doesn't need a reference.

word outputDownload a printable version of this page (.doc)
Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.