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The two parts to referencing are:

  • citations in the text of the report
  • a list of references in the final section

A citation shows that information comes from another source. The reference list gives the details of these sources. You need to use in-text citations and provide details in the references section when:

  • you incorporate information from other sources; e.g.:
    • factual material
    • graphs and tables of data
    • pictures and diagrams
  • you quote word-for-word from another work (when you do this the page number must be given in the in-text citation)

In Engineering, the most common referencing style is the author-date (Harvard) system. However, in Electrical Engineering the IEEE system is used. Full details of these referencing styles are available from LLS Online Resources or through the Library Online Tutorials

Example of in-text citation and reference list entry using the Harvard referencing style:

In-text citation

Corrosion is defined as a 'chemical action which harms the properties of a metal' (Glendinning 1973, p.12). Because corrosion reduces the life of the material and protection procedures are expensive, special corrosion-resistant metals have been developed, including Monel metals which are particularly suited to marine applications (Glendinning 1973).

Reference list entry

Glendinning, E.H. 1973 English in mechanical engineering, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

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