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Author vs. information

Read through the following examples of information-prominent and author-prominent quotes written according to the Harvard Referencing System. Comments on these are in the right-hand column.

Information-prominent quotes Comment

Indirect quote

A scanner recreates an image such as a graphic using small electronic components referred to as the scanner eyes (Englander 2000).
Scanners can differ in the amount of data they record of an image in each pixel (Anderson 1999).

Information + (Author, date)

Information from source material has been paraphrased as an indirect quote in this example and the next. The author's surname and the date of publication are therefore placed in brackets.

The second quote is taken from a website where the author is known. If the author is unknown, the title of the webpage is provided followed by the date.

Direct quote

This will diminish 'posterization - sudden shifts in colour from one pixel to the next where there should be a smooth gradation' (Stone 1998, p.12)
The Universal Serial Bus uses 'isochronous data delivery, each device on the bus is consistently allocated a certain amount of bandwidth' (Stone 1998, p.57)

Information + (Author, date, page number/s)

Information from the original text has been directly transcribed and is therefore placed in quotation marks in these two examples. The page number as well as the author's surname and the date of publication are placed in brackets.





Author-prominent quotes Comment

Indirect quote

Marriot (2000) claims that a scanner is the next must-have peripheral for mainstream PC users.
McAuliffe (2000) predicts that it will soon be possible to scan three-dimensional objects and receive a complete three-dimensional view of the object scanned.
Product reviewers tend to agree that a scanner is the next must-have peripheral for mainstream PC users (Grey 1999; Jenson 2000; Marriot 2000; and Stuart 2000).

Author (date) + Verb + Information

Information from source material has been paraphrased in these two examples. The author's name becomes part of the sentence and the date of publication is placed in brackets.

Notice that in the third quote the authors are listed in brackets at the end of the sentence, rather than at the start. Here the authors are referred to by the general term product reviewers. This statement could be described as 'weak' author-prominent. In this example it has been used to refer to the authors as a group, and to emphasise their occupation. Other terms which could be used for this purpose include: authors, researchers, academics, practitioners, and technicians.

Direct quote

Whittaker (2000, p. 34) predicts that by the year 2050 'computer circuitry (will be) integrated with our central nervous systems.'
Anderson (1999, p. 23) suggests a long term solution to the problem could be the 'introduction of Direct Ram bus DRAM (DRDRAM)'.

Author (date, page/s) + Verb + Information

The author's name becomes part of the sentence in these two examples. As information from the original text has been directly transcribed, the year and page number are placed in brackets.

Reporting verbs

Click on the highlighted text to see the comments.

You may find certain verbs helpful in reporting the information you find in your readings. These verbs are used to describe the way in which an author has written the information, or in other words, what the author does. For example, suggests, states, claims, predicts, observes, defines, points out, or indicates.

Read through the author-prominent quotes above. What are the reporting verbs used in these examples?

Comments

Author-prominent quotes

Indirect quote

Marriot (2000) claims that a scanner is the next must-have peripheral for mainstream PC users.

McAuliffe (2000) predicts that it will soon be possible to scan three-dimensional objects and receive a complete three-dimensional view of the object scanned.

Product reviewers tend to agree that a scanner is the next must-have peripheral for mainstream PC users (Grey 1999; Jenson 2000; Marriot 2000; and Stuart 2000).


Direct quote

Whittaker (2000, p. 34) predicts that by the year 2050 'computer circuitry (will be) integrated with our central nervous systems.'

Anderson (1999, p. 23) suggests a long term solution to the problem could be the 'introduction of Direct Ram bus DRAM (DRDRAM)'.

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