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In-text citations

An in-text reference comprises author surname/s, and the publication date of the source (in brackets), within the body of the essay or report. It is inserted directly after the information being sourced from the scientific literature. For example:

A study conducted by Bright and Western (1984) suggested a significant relationship between...

Alternatively, when emphasising a particular author's ideas, author name/s can become the subject of the sentence with the date only following in brackets, for example:

Bright and Western (1984) have argued that...

Examples of Harvard in-text referencing

Biological stoichiometry is the study of the balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in living systems (Reiners 1986, Sterner 1995). It has its roots in the work of Lotka (1925), one of the first to consider how thermodynamic laws of physical-chemical systems structure the living world. Lotka's thinking echoes in concepts that are now cornerstones of ecology: optimal foraging (Belovsky 1978), resource ratio competition theory (Tilman 1982a, b), the Redfield ratio in oceanic biogeochemical cycling (Redfield 1958), and nutrient use efficiency (Vitousek 1982, Elser et al. 1998).
The second feature of multi-species toxicity tests is particularly significant given a worldwide trend towards the use of probabilistic risk assessment by regulatory bodies. One of the most widely accepted approaches to ecological risk assessment was developed by the USEPA (1992) and refined by Solomon et al. (1996) to include a probabilistic component. The trend towards use of ecological risk assessments is apparent in Australia with the recent introduction of risk-based regulatory guidelines for water quality management (ANZECC, 2000).
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