The Migration, Borders and Policy Observatory
Associate Professor Marie Segrave
Associate Professor of Criminology
Monash University, Faculty of Arts
Associate Professor Dayna Simpson
Associate Professor of Operations and Supply Chain Management
Monash University, Faculty of Business
Dr Shih Joo (Siru) Tan
Early Career Researcher
Dr Bodean Hedwards
Early Career Researcher
'Deportation of convicted New Zealanders from Australia'
'A spatio-temporal analysis of Australia's offshore detention policies'
We are building a world-leading centre that will build on international efforts to understand and mitigate the impact of anti-slavery interventions. The centre will work collaboratively with other universities, international corporations, governments and non-government organisations to work towards real and sustained impact in reducing exploitation.
See more about this Research Group on their website here.
The Monash Migration and Inclusion Centre, Monash Gender and Family Violence Prevention Centre, and Monash Centre for Gender, Peace and Security worked in partnership with UN Women and the ILO to strengthen women migrant worker’s rights within the ASEAN region.
This study was conducted in 8 ASEAN countries of transit and destination, exploring the mechanisms in place to support women migrant workers’ access to essential services. The data collected in this study will be utilised to support front-line service providers and increase their capacity to respond to the needs of women migrants who experienced violence and trafficking.
The Safe and Fair programme incorporates the objective of ‘leaving no one behind’ established in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable development.
Marie Segrave’s ARC DECRA research investigates experiences, knowledge and understandings of labour exploitation of unlawful migrant workers in Australia. Unlawful migrant labour has been identified as a significant issue for Australia, with estimates that between 50-100,000 non citizens are working illegally in Australia (Howell 2011). While increasingly immigration and labour regulatory responses are merging to respond to this issue, the impact of these practices upon the level and nature of victimisation and conditions of exploitation requires investigation.
Through examining experiences across the agricultural, construction and hospitality industries this research seeks to identify whether and how regulatory systems impact on exploitative conditions experienced by unlawful migration labourers. The research investigates, maps and analyses exploitation and regulation as experienced by unlawful migrant labourers.
The 2017 publication, Exploited and Illegal: Unlawful migrant workers in Australia – is associated with this project, and seeks to draw attention primarily to the issue of unlawful migrant work in Australia; to debunk some key myths around this population; and to raise a challenge to policy makers and legislators to look towards a future that will enable impact labour reform to be achieved – reform that will reduce the levels of exploitation and modern slavery occurring within Australia.
The Australian Border Deaths Database maintains a record of all known deaths associated with Australia’s borders since 1 January 2000. Currently the database contains summary details of 2,030 deaths.
The database was established by Professor Sharon Pickering and Associate Professor Leanne Weber as part of BOb’s Deaths at the Global Frontier project, which culminated in 2011 in the publication of the book Globalization and Borders: Death at the Global Frontier.
An explanation of the scope and limitations of the data is available here.
SBS has developed a visual representation of the Australian Border Deaths Database data, which you can access on their website. The infographic only contains data up to the beginning of 2015.
The database can also be made available as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet upon request. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org to obtain the latest version.
You can check out our latest available Annual Report on border-related deaths.
If you would like to report a border death to us please email email@example.com
If you know anyone who has gone missing while travelling to Australia, the Red Cross Find my Family Tracing Service can help.
Our sincere thanks to Michael Sinclair-Jones for permission to use his photograph of the SIEV-X memorial stones as the tile image for the Australian Border Deaths Database.
|Date||No. deaths||Personal Details||Incident Details||Death in Immigration Custody|
|12-Dec-2020||1||Muhammad Hafizuddin bin Zaini, 29 year old, Malaysian Male||Muhammad Hafizuddin bin Zaini a 29 year old Malaysian male died in Vilawood detention centre whilst awaiting deportation, which he didn't contest, after overstaying his visa||Onshore Immigration Detention|
|10-Aug-2020||1||Daniel Harvey, 46 year old, New Zealand Male||Daniel Harvey, 46 year old New Zealand male, died in Melbourne Immigration Detention Centre. Mr Harvey had been in immigration detention for approximately four years.||Onshore Immigration Detention|
|18-July-2020||1||Unknown, Sri Lankan Tamil male, 36 years old||The 36 year old Sri Lankan Tamil male, committed suicide in Sydney.|
|3-May-2020||1||Mokhatar Salehi Boubani, 41 year old, Iranian male||Mokhatar Salehi Boubani was an Iranian Asylum seeker whose protection visa application was rejected. He committed suicide on 3 May 2020|
|15-Oct-2019||1||Sayed Mirwais Rohani, 32 year old, Afghan male||Sayed Mirwais Rohani was a 32 year old Doctor who committed suicide at a Brisbane hotel. In 2017 he had been transferred from Manus Island to Australia for medical treatment and for the last year, he was living in community detention. There were many attempts to reunite with his parents who are refugees in Britain, however these request were denied.|
|24-Aug-2019||1||30 year old, Iranian man of Kurdish ethnicity||The man was found dead from a suspected suicide in Sydney, whilst on leave from Northern Hospital. The man was understood to have arrived by boat in 2012 and released into the community in 2013. He had been living on bridging visas for the past six years, and became seriously mentally ill six weeks prior to his death.|
|13-Jul-2019||1||23 year old, Afghan, male||The man was found on the floor of his room in a Melbourne immigration detention centre. CPR was administered, however he was pronounced dead at 12:20am. His death is not being treated as suspicious||Onshore immigration detention|
|11-Apr-2019||1||Phạm Thanh Sơn, Vietnamese male||Pham Thanh Son was killed in a stabbing attack in Vietnam after he was returned to his home country following a failed bid for asylum in Australia.|
|4-Mar-2019||1||25 year old, Iraqi male||Suspected suicide in Villawood Detention Centre. His death is being investigated.||Onshore immigration detention|
|25-Jan-2019||1||Musa, Sierra Leonean male||Musa was found deceased in Villawood Detention Centre.||Onshore immigration detention|
|2019 (exact date unknown)||1||Tamil, male||A Tamil male hung himself in Bathurst NSW after the decision to send him back home to Sri Lanka was made after it was determined that he was in no danger.|
|6- Sept-2018||1||Saruuan Aljhelie, 22 year old, Iraqi male||Saruuan died in hospital after attempting to take his own life at Yongah Hill immigration detention centre in Western Australia.||Onshore immigration detention|
|29-Aug-2018||1||Tamil, male||The Tamil asylum seeker died in hospital in Brisbane after he attempted to take his own life in hospital whilst being treated for depression. The man had recently had his protection claim rejected by the Australian government.|
|15-June-2018||1||Fariborz Karami, 26 year old, Iranian male||Karami was found dead from a suspected suicide in the RPC3 camp within the Australian-run regional processing centre on Nauru after suffering from years of deteriorating mental health.||Offshore immigration detention|
|22-May-2018||1||Salim, 52 year old, Rohingya, male||Salim died on Manus Island from a supposed suicide attempt. He jumped from a moving vehicle that was traveling from refugee accomodation to town. He suffered serious head injuries and died at the scene. Salim had been on Manus Island for five years and had a long history of mental illness.||Offshore immigration detention|
|2-Nov-2017||1||Mohammad Jahangir, |
29 year old, Bangladeshi man
|The man died after the motorbike he was travelling on collided with another vehicle. Reports from sources reveal the man was run down on his motorbike on Fly Camp Rd, Nauru by a carload of Nauruans. It was understood that there were no witnesses to the incident. The driver of the car, a Nauruan man, has been charged over the incident.||Offshore immigration detention|
|2-Oct-2017||1||Rajeev Rajendran, 32 year old, Sri Lankan Tamil, male||Suspected suicide, found on the grounds of the Lorengau hospital, Manus Island.||Offshore immigration detention|
|7-Aug-17||1||Hamed Shamshiripour, 31 years old, Iranian, male||Hamed was found dead in the forest near the Australian-run East Lorengau refugee transit centre on Manus Island. PNG police have said that the cause of his death was suicide, however his family have demanded an autopsy and inquest to determine the cause of death. Hamed was known to have suffered from acute and worsening mental health issues.||Offshore immigration detention|
|3-July-17 (week beginning)||1||Majid Hassanloo (brother of Saeed Hasanloo), 39 years old, Iranian, male||Majid was found dead in the house he was minding in Sydney from a suspected drug overdose. Majid was released from detention in December 2015 but was not offered adequate support. His psychological deterioration was profound.|
|7-June-17||1||Matthew Taylor, New Zealander, male||Matthew committed suicide in New Zealand, a year and a half after his deportation under s501 of the Migration Act. He was in a desperate situation in New Zealand with limited support and ties to the country following his return. He moved to Australia with his family as a toddler and had never left Sydney until his deportation following his prison sentence for a string of minor offences. He has a young child in Sydney and his immediate family still live there.|
|24-Dec-16||1||Faysal Ishak Ahmed, 27 years old, Sudanese, male||Faysal died followig transfer to Brisbane hospital from Manus Island immigration detention centre following a fall and a seizure within the centre, resulting in head injuries. He had been unwell for some months in the lead up to his death.||Offshore immigration detention|
|20-Nov-16||1||Fereshteh, 38 years old, Iranian, woman||Fereshteh was living in the community in Perth on a bridging visa. The mother of a two year old son, she threw herself from the sixth floor balcony of her home.|
|2-Aug-16||1||Kamil Hussain, 34 year old, Pakistani man||Drowned whilst swimming at a waterfall on Manus Island during a day trip from the immigration detention centre.||Offshore immigration detention|
|00-Aug-16||1||Saeed Hassanloo, 27 years old, Iranian, male||Died in Hobart where he was living in the community on a SHEV visa. The nature and cause of his death is not known. The exact date of his death is not known, although it occurred in August.|
|17-Jul-16||1||Deepak Singh, mid-30s, Indian, male||Suspected suicide. Found dead in his car in Melbourne with links to potential stress over Permanent Residency visa application which had been rejected by DIBP and by Migration Review Tribunal.|
|00-Jun-16||1||Mohammad Hadi, 23 years old, Hazara, male||Hadi was living in the community in Sydney on a Bridging Visa. He hanged himself, a suspected suicide as a result of mental health issues from time spent in detention and uncertainty surrounding visa status. His body was discovered in a Sydney park by a passing jogger. Exact date of death unknown.|
|11-May-16||1||Rakib Khan, 26 year old, Bangladeshi man||The Bangladeshi man checked himself into hospital on Nauru following a suspected suicide attempt reportedly from a pharmaceutical drug overdose. He suffered a series of heart failures and died.||Offshore immigration detention|
|29-Apr-16||1||Omid Masoumali, 23 year old Iranian man||Omid died from serious burns injuries in a Brisbane hospital after setting himself on fire in the Nauru Nibok settlement, outside a refugee compound, during a UN monitoring visit. The admistering of painkillers was delayed. He suffered a cardiac arrest in hospital where doctors had to perform emergency surgery. His wife believes delays to his transfer to Brisbane hospital from Nauru (22 hours) may have contributed to his death. Nauru hospital unequipped to deal with his injuries.||Offshore immigration detention|
|4-Apr-16||1||Robert Peihopa, New Zealander, 42 years old||Robert died of a suspected heart attack in Villawood Immigration Detention Centre. Attempts were made to resuscitate him by staff. On the 28 November 2017, the NSW coroner reported that Mr Peihopa died of an "Underlying chronic coronary artery disease and triggers of ingestion of methamphetamine in the hours before Mr Peihopa’s death and the physical and emotional distress arising from his involvement in a fight immediately prior to his death."||Onshore immigration detention|
|1-Apr-16||1||Afghan, Male||On a bridging visa living in the Sydney community, died from hanging.|
|00-Apr-16||1||Mohammad Nazari, 35 years old, Hazara, male||Mohammad Nazari was living in the community in Sydney on a Bridging Visa. He hanged himself on a construction site, a suspected suicide as a result of mental health issues from time spent in detention and uncertainty surrounding visa status. Exact date of death unknown.|
|8-Nov-15||1||Fazal Chegani, Iranian Kurd, Male, early 30s||Fazal had been in detention for five years and had a history of attempting suicide and mental health problems. He was found dead under suspicious circumstances on Christmas Island after escaping from the immigration detention centre. He had made a previous attempt to take his life by jumping from the roof of another detention centre before being sent to Christmas Island in recent months.||Offshore immigration detention centre|
|27-Oct-15||1||Reza, Iranian man, 26 years old||The man suicided at Brisbane airport after months of suffering from depression and despair. He was living in the community on a bridging visa.|
|18-Oct-15||1||Khodayar Amini, 30 years old, Hazara Afghan man.||Khodayar Amini died from self immolation in Dandenong out of fear of being returned to immigration detention and then to Afghanistan where he believed he would be kllled. Mr Amini was living in the community in Australia on a bridging visa and had been contacted by Australian immigration staff who wanted to interview him.|
|17-Sep-15||1||Ali Jaffari, Hazara man||Jaffari self imolated two days earlier, suffering burns to 90% of his body. He died in Fiona Stanley hospital Perth. Jaffari had previously been on suicide watch in Yongah Hills immigration detention centre, WA, following previous attempts on his life.||Onshore immigration detention|
|14-Sep-15||1||Junior Togatuki, 23 years old, New Zealand man||Mr Togatuki died in Goulburn’s Supermax Prison in NSW whilst awaiting deportation at the completion of his prison sentence for armed robbery (S501). He was being held in solitary confinement and his death has been ruled as a suicide. The NSW Coroner reported on 13 July 2018 that Mr Togatuki's cause of death was massive blood loss caused by incised wounds of left upper extremity.||In custody – prison|
|31-Jul-15||1||Mohammad Nasim Najafi, 27 years old, Afghan man||Mr Nasim died of a suspected heart attack in Yongah Hill Detention Centre, Western Australia amongst claims he had been denied medical treatment for two weeks.||Onshore immigration detention|
|14-Jul-15||1||An Hoang Le Nguyen, 4 years old, Vietnamese male||An was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in 2014, after travelling to Australia via boat in 2013. Following treatment he had a short period of remission, however passed from his illness in mid July.||Onshore immigration detention|
|17-Jun-15||1||Raza, Afghan (Hazara), man||Raza was on a bridging visa. He committed suicide in Perth by jumping in front of a train the day after being interviewed by police. His mental health had deteriorated after being on a bridging visa.|
|mid-2015||1||Hazara, male||The man committed suicide on Perth.|
|13-Mar-15||1||Omid Ali Avaz, 29 years old, Iranian man of Kurdish ethnicity||Mr Avaz is believed to have taken his own life in Brisbane following a history of mental illness since learning of the death of his mother. Mr Avaz was on a 449 Humanitarian Stay Temporary Visa for a period of 12 months in February and it is believed that he had concerns about his refugee status.|
|17-Nov-14||1||John McFerrier, Zimbabwean, 51 years old, male||Died in Liverpool Hospital NSW where he was transferred from Villawood Immigration Detention Centre. The Coroner ruled that Mr McFerrier died of natural causes as a result of a heart attack triggered by pneumonia and organ failure where morbid obescity was a contributing factor to his death.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|5-Sep-14||1||Hamid Kehazaei, 24 years old, Iranian man||Kehazaei had been admitted to Mater Hospital, Brisbane from Manus Island where he had developed septicaemia from a cut on his foot. Once transferred to Port Moresby he suffered a heart attack. He finally was airlifted to hospital on the mainland of Australia where he became gravely ill and was placed on life support. He was declared brain dead earlier in the week before the decision was made to turn off his life support.||Offshore immigration detention centre|
|22-Jun-14||1||Sayed Ibrahim Hussein, Pakistani man||Hussein drowned while swimming in the Galab Channel. He was caught in a rip. A Nauruan man also dorwned following an attempt to save Hussein.||Offshore immigration detention centre|
|1-Jun-14||1||Leo Seemanpillai, 29 years old, Sri Lankan man||Leo Semmanpillai died as a result of self immolation, suffering burns to 90% of his body. He had been living in community detention on a bridging visa awaiting the outcome of his refugee claim.|
|17-Feb-14||1||Reza Barati, 24 years old, Iranian man||Reza Barati died of head injuries on the way to Lorengau hospital in PNG following protests at the Manus Island Immigration Detention Centre. Violence resulted in the injury of 77 others, 12 seriously. It is understood that at least 2 secuirty guards were involved in the altercation during the riots of 2014, they were later convicted of Barati's murder. The riot prompted a senate inquiry which concluded that the Australian Government had failed to protect asylum seekers.||Offshore immigration detention centre|
|13-Feb-14||1||Indian man, 27 years old||The man hung himself in Maribyrnong Immigration Detention Centre. He had been detained since January 2014 for overstaying his student visa. Victorian Police are investigating his death.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|5-Feb-14||1||Rezene Mebrahta Engeda, 30 year old, Eritrean man||Rezene Mebrahta Engeda drowned himself in the Maribyrnong River, Victoria upon notice of a failed asylum application and letter to attend a meeting with DIBP where he assumed he would be told of his pending deportation to Eritrea.|
|9-Dec-13||3||Iranian and ethnic Rohingya||The boat, carrying 30 asylum seekers, sank off the coast of Java, bound for Australia. Three deaths including one two year old child.|
|12-Oct-13||1||Qasem Abdalla, 63 years old, Somalian, male||Mr Abdalla died in Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, as a result of heart failure following medical transfer from immigration detention on Christmas Island. His death was ruled a death in custody by the coroner.||
Offshore immigration detention centre.
Death in custody ruled by coroner – transferred for medical treatment from Christmas Island.
|27-Sep-13||36||Lebanese, Iranian, Iraqi & Africans, reportedly mostly children under 15 who drowned because they could not swim. 8 children known to have drowned and one pregnant woman.||The boat sank off Java enroute to Australia. 36 people are confirmed drowned including a number of children. News reports say the death toll may rise to 70. 25 rescued. Reports of between 63-125 on board.|
|24-Jul-13||20||1 baby (under 1 year); 1 boy around 5 years old; 1 girl aged 6 years; 3 children aged 7, 10 and 12 years; 1 adult male; Nithya, adult Sri Lankan female is missing; Sarimah, adult Iranian female, Sarimah; Baremithan Balamanaran, Sri Lankan boy aged 3. Others unknown, Iraqis, Afghans, Sri Lankans and Iranians.||Boat capsized off Java coast enroute to Australia. 189 rescued by Indonesian authorities with approximately 40 children. 10 known fatalities including children. Majority of passengers reported to be Iranian and Iraqi with others from Afghanistan and Sri Lanka.|
|22-Jul-13||1||Hock An Ong, Malaysian, 58 years old, male||Mr Ong died at Amaroo Orchards, Paringa, South Australia following a workplace raid on the orchard by SA Police and immigration authorities. He fled the authorities and suddenly collapsed, dying at the scene. He was unlawfully residing and working in Australia at the time. The Coroner ruled his death as a death in custody.||Death during pursuit by Department of Immigration Compliance Officers and police.|
|22-Jul-13||1||Ramaiah Mahenthiran, 50 years old, Sri Lankan, male||Died in Curtin Immigration Detention Centre, WA. Mr Mahenthiran arrived by boat to the Cocos (Keeling) Islands two and a half months earlier on SIEV 689 and was first held on Christmas Island Immigration Detention, before being transferred to Curtin Immigration Detention Centre. He died from a heart attack.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|16-Jul-13||4||2 women aged late 20s/early 30s, 1 man in his 20s and 1 man in his 30s.||Drowned after boat was intercepted by Australian customs who responded to its distress signal as boat was capsizing off the coast of Christmas Island in rough seas. 144 on board.||Interdiction at sea by Australian border control|
|12-Jul-13||9||Baby, under 1 year old, boy, 8 missing presumed dead||Boat carrying 97 asylum seekers sank north of Christmas Island. The body of a boy less than a year old was recovered by Australian search and rescue teams. 8 people are still missing, presumed drowned. The search has been called off, survivors taken to Christmas Island.||Interdiction at sea by Australian border control|
|20-Jun-13||1||Ali Ahmad Jafari, 26 yr old, Hazara, male||Collapsed and died in Villawood Immigration Detention Centre. Unsuccessful efforts made to revive him. DIAC statement says Jafari died of natural causes.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|16-Jun-13||1||Unknown woman||Woman found dead on board asylum seeker boat carrying 60 people intercepted by Australian Customs and Border Patrol off Christmas Island. Circumstances surrounding her death are currently unknown.||Interdiction at sea by Australian border control|
|15-Jun-13||1||Afghan, male, 62 years||Died in the Wickham Point detention centre near Darwin, after staff found him unconscious. NT police are investigating his death.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|9-Jun-13||34||Sri Lankans||The Sri Lakan boat ‘Jayawe’ went missing NW of the Cocos Islands despite a 3-day search and rescue operation conducted by AMSA. All on board presumed drowned.|
|7-Jun-13||55||Unknown, Afghans, mostly men, small number of women and children on board.||An estimated 55 people have drowned after their boat sank off Christmas Island, travelling from Indonesia. Australian Customs and Border Protection made the decision not to retrieve the bodies in favour of attending to other asylum seeker boat arrivals in the area. 13 bodies have since been recovered from the water near Christmas Island. The recovery effort will not continue.|
|1-Jun-13||1||Unknown, male, 52 years||The 52-year-old man was transferred from the processing area at Christmas Island Immigration Detention Centre to hospital within hours of landing. He was one of 157 people aboard 2 boats that reached Australian waters within 48 hours of each other.||Offshore immigration detention centre|
|5-May-13||2||Iranian adult males, Sajad and Meisan.||Drowned after making a makeshift raft and sailing it to seek help after asylum seeker boat was left without food, water and power. 46 other passengers stayed on board and were rescued after being located by Australian surveillance aircraft 110 nautical miles off Christmas Island.|
|1-May-13||1||Sri Lankan, male, 35 yrs old||Died shortly after arrival on Christmas Island from cardiac arrest.||Offshore immigration detention centre|
|20-Apr-13||1||Papua New Guinean, male, 33 years||The man from Villawood Immigration Detention Centre fell out of a window and died whilst in Liverpool hospital, Sydney where he was receiving medical treatment.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|11-Apr-13||58||Rehmatullah Muhammad Kan, male; Mahidi Fidayee, 16 years, male; Abdul Aziz, 63 years, male; Ibar Hussain Rajabi, 17 years, male; the rest unknown, all Afghan||Boat lost at sea in Sundra Strait off Indonesian coast carrying 72 asylum seekers bound for Australia. 14 survivors found, 5 confirmed deaths, 53 missing presumed drowned.|
|29-Mar-13||2||1 female (pregnant) 22 years and 1 boy, 4 years, Afghan||The woman and child drowned following interception by Australian Customs when their fishing boat capsized 15 nautical miles from Christmas Island. 95 people on board, 93 rescued. Australian Customs had been monitoring this boat for some time before interception.||Interdiction at sea by Australian border control|
|30-Jan-13||3||3 males||3 Burmese asylum seekers are missing at sea after one of their Indonesian crewmen ‘washed up’ on the shores of Christmas Island. The crewman claimed that after his boat broke down 17 nautical miles north of the Island, he made a make-shift raft to take the three Burmese men to Christmas Island. The raft broke up during the journey and the men have not yet been found. The air search at sea has been suspended and the men are presumed drowned.|
|29-Jan-13||4||3 males and 1 female, Sri Lankan||Boat found crippled on a reef off Indonesia by local fishermen. Had allegedly been at sea for 2 months. 2 men drowned when they jumped overboard once Indonesian authorities had approached and one man is missing after also jumping overboard. 2 people, 1 man and 1 woman were found dead on board the boat. 22 rescued by Indonesian authorities and taken to immigration detention on Indonesia.|
|4-Jan-13||1||Anandakumar Sellakathirkgaman, male, Sri Lankan, 38 years old||Mr Sellakathirkgaman died at Fremantle Hospital, Western Australia, as a result of hypoxic brain injury and organ failure following compression of the neck (hanging) and death occurred by way of suicide. He was on a bridging visa at the time of his death, living with his brother in the community. The WA Coroner has presented findings on this death, linking the impact of the Australian asylum process with Mr Sellakathirkgaman taking his own life.|
|15-Nov-12||1||Unknown Male, Hazara||Died enroute to Christmas Island onboard asylum boat. The man had died onboard the boat, most likely of natural causes. His death was discovered by Australian authorities who intercepted and boarded the boat north east of Christmas Island following calls from the boat that the man onboard was unwell.||Interdiction at sea by Australian border control|
|26-Oct-12||33||Enayatullah Hussaini, male; Taqi Bahadari, male; Mohammad Jawad, male, 40 years old; the rest unknown males, Pakistani and Hazara||Drowned enroute to Christmas Island when their asylum boat engine failed and the boat began to sink. Those on board were forced into the water. One survivor was picked up by an Indonesian fishing vessel and returned to Indonesia.|
|30-Aug-12||95||Unknown, males, females and children, 10 women and girls reported drowned including one 3-4 month old baby girl and Hameeda, 29 year old woman. All Hazara from Afghanistan and Pakistan.||Boat capsized off Indonesian coast, bound for Christmas Island. 55 survivors pulled from the water between 24-48 hours following the capsize and returned to Indonesia. 1 deceased pulled from the water, 94 people still missing, feared drowned. 150 reported onboard.|
|16-Aug-12||1||Unknown, male||Man fell overboard when boat carrying 68 asylum seekers, bound for Christmas Island, was intercepted by a merchant vessel off Java coast.|
|14-Aug-12||67||Palestinians, including at least 1 child||The boat was known to have left Indonesia on June 28 and there is no evidence to show this boat arrived in Australia. 67 passengers on board, lost at sea enroute to Australia.|
|12-Aug-12||24||Afghans, Fazil Hussain, Muhammad Jawad, Sandigh Noor Ahmad, Nasrollah Najafi, Amin Razaee, Nassrollah Amiri, Tahereh Najafi, Seeyed Anvar Mosavi, the rest unknown||The boat carrying 24 passengers is known to have left Indonesia bound for Christmas Island, however relatives in Australia of those on board have not heard of their arrival. The boat is missing at sea with those on board presumed drowned. This incident was not reported by the Australian media or government.|
|30-Jun-12||67||Unknown||Missing at sea presumed drowned. Boat lost at sea off Indonesian coast, bound for Australia. Australian media reported 67 on board but Australian Government has no evidence to confirm this.|
|27-Jun-12||4||Unknown||Boat carrying 134 asylum seekers capsized off Christmas Island enroute to Australia from Indonesia, 130 people rescued, 1 body recovered, 3 people still missing.|
|21-Jun-12||90||Unknown, Afghan and Pakistani men and 9 unaccompanied boys including one 15 year old.||Boat carrying 200 asylum seekers capsized around 200km north of Christmas Island, en route to Australia from Indonesia, Afghan and Pakistani men and children on boat, 17 bodies recovered, 73, possibly more, still missing (presumed drowned), 110 rescued, including one 13 year old boy. Those rescued taken to Christmas Island.|
|5-Jun-12||1||Sri Lankan||The Sri Lankan Irregular Maritime Arrival died in community detention in NSW.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|22-May-12||25||Afghans, Taufeeq Ullah, Mohammad Amin, Shabbir, Nadir, Raza, Ishaq, the rest names unknown.||The boat carrying 25 passengers is known to have left Indonesia on May 22, 2012 and has been missing at sea since. It is presumed all on board have drowned enroute to Christmas Island. The boat has not been found and relatives in Australia of those on board have not heard from them since the boat left Indonesia.This incident was not reported in the Australian media or by the government.|
|27-Feb-12||1||Iranian||The Iranian national, who was detained in relation to visa compliance issues, died at Sydney Immigration Residential Housing.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|27-Feb-12||1||Ali Rahimi, Iranian, male, 44||Died in hospital of heart attack, possibly caused by anxiety suffered after time in detention at Villawood and repeated rejection of asylum claim.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|1-Feb-12||11||Afghan, Pakistani and Iraqi||The boat sank off the coast of Malaysia, enroute to Australia. Around 25 passengers on board, 18 rescued. 4 Pakistanis and 1 Afghan known to have drowned.|
|17-Dec-11||201||Unknown, Afghan/Iranian, men and women reported on board.||103 confirmed dead, 98 unacccounted for after boat called Barokah (reportedly carrying 250 refugees) capsized off East Java, enroute to Australia. 49 rescued.|
|1-Nov-11||30||4 adult women, 4 children||The boat foundered 5 nautical miles off south Java coast. 75 passengers on board, 8 confirmed drownings, 22 missing presumed drowned. Indonesian authorities conducted the rescue of 45 passengers.|
|26-Oct-11||1||Sri Lankan||Sri Lankan Irregular Maritime Arrival died at Sydney Immigration Residential Housing .||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|22-Jul-11||1||Afghan||Irregular Maritime Arrival died in community detention in Victoria||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|27-Mar-11||1||Mohammad Asif Ata, Afghan, male, 19||Found dead in detention centre, Curtin, Western Australia by other detainees. Suspected suicide.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|18-Mar-11||1||Miqdad Hussain, Afghan, male, 20||Found dead in detention centre in Weipa, QLD, by staff. Suspected suicide.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|15-Dec-10||50||Three male and three female children including infants, and estimated 42 adults, all either Iranian, Iraqi or Kurd||Drowned after refugee boat codenamed ‘SIEV 221’ crashed onto rocks on Christmas Island, 30 bodies recovered. 42 survivors.|
|8-Dec-10||1||David Saunders, British, male, 29||Committed suicide at Villawood Immgration Detention Centre, Sydney.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|16-Nov-10||1||Ahmad al-Akabi, Iraqi, male, 40||Committed suicide at Villawood Immgration Detention Centre, Sydney, after refugee application was rejected twice.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|14-Nov-10||97||Hamed el Ibrahimi, 17 years old, male; Mohammed Rezai, male; Ahmed Haddad Mohammed Otham, male, 43 years old; Zia Sediqi; Abdul Udud Rahmani, male; Abdul Hai Rahmani, male; all others unknown||Boat feared lost at sea enroute from Indonesia. No direct confirmation of sinking, but relatives in Australia report no contact following embarkation on 13 November 2010.|
|20-Sep-10||1||Josefa Rauluni, Fijian, male, 36||Jumped off a roof at Villawood Immigration Detention Centre, Sydney, hours before he was to be deported.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|23-Aug-10||1||Unknown, Afghan, male, 30||Died Sir Charles Gardener Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, of a medical condition after being found unconscious at the Curtin Immigration Detention Centre.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|7-Jun-10||12||Thileep Kumar and Bahirathan, both Sri Lankan, and ten Afghans, all male||Drowned off the coast of Indonesia while changing from a large boat to a smaller boat-second attempt for Sri Lankans after previous interception.|
|30-Apr-10||5||Unknown, Sri Lankan, males||Drowned after abandoning SIEV 143 refugee vessel to seek help. 59 rescued by Russian merchant vessel. Government had prior knowledge of vessel being in the vicinity of the Cocos Islands. The AFP will conduct an investigation into the missing 5 people.|
|7-Dec-09||1||David Moore, Scottish, male, 43||Died 2 days after arrival in London after being deported from Australia.|
|1-Nov-09||13||Unknown males, Sri Lankan||SIEV 69 boat located in distress 350 nautical miles off Cocos (Keeling) Islands, intercepted by Australian Customs and Border Protection. 27 people rescued, 1 body recovered, 12 people lost at sea, presumed drowned.||Interdiction at sea by Australian border control|
|5-Oct-09||105||Barkat Ali, male, Afghan, 25 years old; Habib Hedari, male, Afghan, teenager; the rest unknown, Afghans. Women and children reported to be on board.||Boat lost at sea enroute to Australia 17 nautical miles off the coast of Java in Indonesian waters. No bodies were ever found.|
|16-Apr-09||5||Mohammed Hassan Ayubi 45, Muzafar Ali Sefarali 45, Mohammed Amen Zamen 38, Awar Nader 50, Baquer Husani 26, all Afghan males||Died as a result of explosion on boat codenamed ‘SIEV 36’ during naval interception at Ashmore Reef.||Interdiction at sea by Australian border control|
|14-Jan-09||9||Afghans including 9-year old boy named Muneer Ahmad Iqbal and his father (adult male) Nawrooz Ali.||Boat capsized enroute to Australia in Rote Strait off Kupang, Indonesia. All onboard were Afghan citizens who had escaped from Kupang immigration detention centre. The Australian government has not confirmed these deaths.|
|unknown (reported 2008)||1||Mr Mack, male, 76||Died in Villawood Immigration Detention Centre, Sydney, following surgery for a medical condition.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|unknown (reported 2008)||1||Mr Cai, Chinese, male||Died in China after deportation from Villawood Immigration Detention Centre, Sydney.|
|16-Jun-08||1||Mr Zhang, Chinese, male||Committed suicide after being deported to China, feared persecution and torture in China.|
|13-Jan-08||1||Mr Fashovar, Iranian, male, 62||Died of a medical condition in Villawood Immigration Detention Centre, Sydney.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|11-Sep-06||1||Wah Aun Chan, Malaysian, male, 27||Drowned in River Murray after running from police near Waikerie on the Sturt Highway, South Australia.||Death from drowning after escaping police custody|
|9-Sep-06||11||Unknown, Afghans, two females aged 6 and 9, and nine males||All eleven victims murdered in their homes in Afghanistan by locals calling them ‘spies’, after being deported as a group from Australia.|
|2006 (exact date unknown)||1||‘Reginald’, Sri Lankan, male||‘Reginald’ arrived in Australia in 1997 fleeing civil war in Sri Lanka where he was targetted for being the son of a police man. His application for refugee protection was refused and he was deported to Sri Lanka. In September 2006, following the outbreak of civil war, Reginald was kidnapped, tortured, mutilated and thrown into a river in Colombo by militia.|
|20-Aug-05||1||Mrs Aziz Yaukob Agha, Syrian, female, 70||Died of medical condition at son’s home in Melbourne after refusal of visa extension and imminent deportation.|
|28-Apr-05||1||Mohammed Heri, Indonesian, male, 37||Detained illegal fisherman, died on his own boat “Gurung Mas Baru” in Darwin Harbour.||Onshore immigration detention|
|25-Mar-05||1||Unknown, male||Died in Maribyrnong Immigration Detention Centre, Melbourne.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|29-Aug-04||1||Marc Lao Thao, French, male||Died in Villawood Immigration Detention Centre, Sydney.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|1-Jul-04||1||Seong Ho Kang, South Korean, male||Run over by a taxi in Strathfield, Sydney, after being pursued on foot by DIAC Law Enforcement Unit.||Death during pursuit by Department of Immigration Compliance Officers|
|19-Jun-03||1||Quoc Kinh Phung, Vietnamese, male||Died in Western General Hospital, Melbourne, after being transferred from Maribyrnong Immigration Detention Centre, Melbourne.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|26-Feb-03||1||Mansur la Ibu, Indonesian, male, 20||Detained illegal fisherman, died on his own boat “Yamdena” in Darwin Harbour.||Onshore immigration detention|
|3-Feb-03||1||Dr Habuibullah Wahedy, Afghan, male, 46||Killed himself at Murray Bridge, South Australia, after the Immigration Department said his Temporary Protection Visa would soon expire and encouraged him to return to Afghanistan.|
|19-Jan-03||1||Fatima Irfani, Afghan, female, 29||Died in Sir Charles Gardener Hospital, Perth, of bleeding in her brain after transfer from Christmas Island.||Offshore immigration detention centre|
|1-Dec-02||1||Unknown, male, Afghan||Killed on return to Afghanistan from Australia under the Australian Government reintegration assistance package.|
|1-Nov-02||1||Nader, male, Iranian||Disappeared on return to Iran, presumed killed after a forced return from Australia.|
|00-Sept-02||1||Alvaro Morales, male, Colombian||Alvaro was gunned down in Bogota following deportation to Colombia from Australia after he was refused refugee status in 2001. He arrived in Australia seeking asylum to escape para-military violence in Colombia.|
|26-Aug-02||1||Mohammed Sarwar, male||Died in Nauru Detention Centre.||Offshore immigration detention centre|
|16-Mar-02||1||Alexander Nikolaevich Vasilkov, Russian, male, 44||Died in Fremantle Hospital Perth after being detained in port for illegal fishing.||Onshore immigration detention|
|13-Jan-02||1||Thi Hang Ley, Vietnamese, female||Killed herself after being detained in Villawood Immigration Detention Centre, Sydney, for overstaying visa. This was her 3rd suicide attempt.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|2002 (exact date unknown)||1||Ahab Bilal, Pakistani, male||Ahab fled Pakistan in November 2000. His refugee application was refused by DIMIA and he was deported from Villawood IDC on 1 June 2002 to Pakistan. He was murdered within 2 months of his return.|
|2002 (exact date unknown)||1||Mohammed, Iranian, male||Mohammed is the brother of Ahmed (recorded below as ‘date unknown’) and was killed soon after his return to Iran following forcible removal from Perth IDC in May 2002.|
|2002 (exact date unknown)||1||Unknown, Pakistani||This persons death was recorded at the same time as Ahab’s (above) and was reported by church officials in Australia to the Edmund Rice Centre who recorded this death in their 2006 ‘Deported to Danger II’ publicaton.|
|8-Nov-01||2||Nurjan Husseini, Afghan, female, 55 and Fatima Husseini, Afghan, female, 20||Passengers on refugee boat ‘Sumber Lestari’ drowned during operation Relex off Christmas Island.||Interdiction at sea by Australian border control|
|1-Nov-01||3||Hussein Yahia aged 30; Thamer Hussein and Haithem Dawood, all males, Iraqis.||At least three named asylum seekers feared drowned at Roti Island, Indonesia, after their boat, enroute to Australia was forced back by navy.||Interdiction at sea by Australian border control|
|19-Oct-01||353||146 children, 142 women, 65 men, all Iraqi or Afghan||Drowned after refugee vessel codenamed ‘SIEV X’ sank off Indonesia, but in Australian aerial border protection surveillance zone.|
|26-Sep-01||1||Puangthong Simaplee, Thai, Female, 25||Trafficked into Austraila for sexual exploitation age 12, heroin addiction, died of medical condition in Villawood Immigration Detention Centre, Sydney.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|6-Sep-01||2||Said Sakhi, Afghan, Male, 20 and Murtaza Roni, Afghan, Male, infant||Drowned when refugee boat ‘KM Harapan Jaya II’ hit rocks off Indonesia enroute to Australia.|
|1-Sep-01||1||Unknown Afghan, newborn baby, male||Died due to lack of medical care on board refugee vessel during Operation Relex interception at Ashmore Reef, off the coast of Western Australia; first interception post Tampa.||Interdiction at sea by Australian border control|
|25-Jul-01||1||Avion Gumede, South African, male, 30||Killed himself after arriving at Sydney Airport and being detained in Villawood Immigration Detention Centre, Sydney.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|23-Jun-01||1||Mohammed Saleh, Palestinian, male, 41||Died of medical condition in Hollywood Private Hospital, Perth after being transported from Port Hedland Immigration Detention Centre.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|29-May-01||1||Sharaz Kayani, Pakistani, male, 48||Set himself on fire outside Parliament House, Canberra because family’s application to migrate was denied.|
|24-Jan-01||1||Hai Phuc Vo, Vietnamese, male||Died in Western General Hospital, Melbourne after being transferred from Port Phillip Prison.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|22-Dec-00||1||Villiami Tanginoa, Tongan, male, 52||Died after plummeting from basketball pole at Maribyrnong Detention Centre, Melbourne after altercation with guards.||Onshore immigration detention centre|
|21-Dec-00||3||Unknown||Vessel (raft) codenamed “Rosalie’ crossing from Lagrange Island (Western Australia). Victims died while searching for water.|
|00-Mar-00||70||Unknown||Boat carrying 60-80 passengers believed to have sank after it left Java around the same time as the previous two entries above. We have recorded the median number of 70 deaths. It was not reported if/how many men, women or children were on board. Nationalities were also not reported. Although the Howard Government claimed that this boat went missing with all on board presumed drowned, none of these deaths have been substantiated/confirmed by the government.|
|00-Mar-00||80||Unknown||80 persons estimated to be on board the boat believed to be heading to Ashmore Reef from Kupang, West Timor, Indonesia. It is reported that this boat left around the same time as the boat listed in the entry above and went missing at sea enroute to Australia with all on board presumed dead. It was not reported if the passengers on board were men, women or children. Nationalities were also not reported. Although the Howard Government claimed that this boat went missing with all on board presumed drowned, none of these deaths have been substantiated/confirmed by the government.|
|25-Mar-00||220||Middle Eastern men, women and children reported to be on board.||220 passengers on board, believed heading to Christmas Island from the west coast of Java, Indonesia. The boat went missing at sea enroute and all passengers are believed to have drowned. All passengers on board were believed to be from the Middle East. It is known that the boat was carrying men, women and children although a breakdown of these numbers is no known. Although the Howard Government claimed that this boat went missing with all on board presumed drowned, none of these deaths have been substantiated/confirmed by the government.|
|Date unknown||1||Mohammed Moussa Nazaree, Hazara, male||Mohammed died on return to Afghanistan from Nauru immigration detention centre. The date of his death is unknown.|
|Date unknown||1||Yacoub Baklari, Hazara, male||Yacoub died on return to Afghanistan from Nauru immigration detention centre. The date of his death is unknown.|
|Date unknown||7||unknown, Hazara||Deaths of seven Hazara on return to Afghanistan reported by ERC in ‘Deported to Danger II’ following removal from Nauru immigration detention centre.|
|Date unknown||1||Sri Lankan||Details of death unknown other than the person died following deportation from Australia to Sri Lanka. Reported by Edmund Rice Centre in their 2006 ‘Deported to Danger II’ publication.|
|Date unknown||1||Iranian male, brother of Mohammed (death reported 2002, exact date unknown)||Ahmed disappeared on return to Iran following deportation from Australia. Ahmed voluntarily returned, but was escorted by DIMIA.|
|TOTAL NUMBER OF DEATHS SINCE JAN 2000||2030||(Includes those who are missing, who have not been rescued or recovered and are therefore feared drowned)|
Since amendments were made to Section 501 of the Migration Act – visa cancellation and refusal on character grounds – in December 2014, New Zealanders are the largest nationality group of persons who have their visa cancelled under s501, which then renders them unlawful non-citizens. As a result, they are the largest nationality group in Australia’s immigration detention network and the largest nationality group to be deported from Australia under s501. A number of these are permanent and long term residents who had lived in Australia since childhood or a period of 10 years or more. This research seeks to present an understanding of the Australian deportation experience for those convicted New Zealanders who have their visa cancelled under s501.
Very little is known about visa cancellation and deportation policy and practice against convicted New Zealanders from Australia and the human impact this experience has on deportees and their families. While this aspect is at the heart of this research, administrative decision making surrounding visa cancellation and deportation against convicted non-citizens will be explored within a crimmigration, risk society and pre-crime framework. In s501 decision making, convicted non-citizens are often constructed as a risk to the Australian community as a means to justify visa cancellation and removal decisions which then has an impact on the individual circumstances and human rights of New Zealander long term residents of Australia.
This research project builds upon the Australian Deportation Project that examines contemporary deportations from Australia. The overarching objective of this research is to examine the rise in crimmigration responses towards convicted non-citizens in the evolution of visa cancellation and deportation policy and practice, and the intersection of risk and human rights with regards to the visa cancellation process, its application and impact on the group most affected by this policy and practice: New Zealand citizens.
Overall research question
How has Australian criminal deportation policy and practice changed over time and what have been the impacts on New Zealander criminal deportees and their families?
Detailed research questions
- To what extent does the evolution of Australia’s criminal deportation policy from 1958-2018 incorporate characteristics of crimmigration and human rights protections for convicted non-citizens?
- In what ways are considerations of risk and human rights presented in policy evident in s501 visa cancellation Administrative Appeal Tribunal (AAT) review outcomes for convicted New Zealanders?
- How have convicted New Zealanders and family Members experienced s501 visa cancellation and deportation since policy amendments were made in December 2014?
Rebecca Powell Rebecca.firstname.lastname@example.org
Marie Segrave email@example.com
Leanne Weber: Leanne.Weber@canberra.edu.au
Powell, R. (2020) Submission to the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights Working Group on the use of mercenaries, on the role of private military and security companies in immigration and border management and the impact on the protection of the rights of all migrants, 'Convicted New Zealander experiences with Serco security company ,law and border enforcement personnel in immigration detention and s501 deportation from Australia' August, 2020.
Powell, R. (2020) 'Tracing the Characteristics of Crimmigration in the Evolution of Australia’s Criminal Deportation Policy 1958-2018' Border Criminologies, 27 July 2020.
Weber, L. and Powell R. (2020) 'Crime, pre-crime and sub-crime: Deportation of 'risky non-citizens' as 'enemy crimmigration'' in J. Pratt and J, Anderson (eds.) Criminal Justice, Risk and the Revolt against Uncertainty, Palgrave McMillan.
Powell, R. (2019) 'Questions of fairness: New Zealander experiences of s501 and the case of Shane Martin' Overland, 6 June 2019. Available online.
Martin, D. & Powell, R. 2018, 'Proposed change to Migration Act opens the way to deporting children' Right Now, 23 November 2018.
Powell, R. & Martin, D. 2018, 'Border Crossing Observatory submission to the Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee on the Migration Amendment (Strengthening the Character Test) Bill 2018', 3 December 2018.
Powell, R. & Weber, L. 2018, 'Border Crossing Observatory submission to the Joint Standing Committee on Migration review processes associated with visa cancellations made on criminal grounds' 27 April 2017.
Powell, R. & Segrave, M. 2018, ‘In the absence of sympathy: Serious criminal offenders and the impact of border control measures’, in A Fili, S Jahnsen and R Powell (eds.) Criminal Justice Research in an Era of Mass Mobility, Palgrave: London.
Weber, L. & Powell, R. 2017, ‘Ripples Across the Pacific: Cycles of Risk and Exclusion Following Criminal Deportation to Samoa’ in S. Khsoravi, After Deportation: Ethnographic perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan.Cr
The use of offshore detention has been witnessed within the Australian context following the arrival of the MV Tampa. This event resulted in the introduction of the Pacific Solution and the establishment of offshore detention centres on both Nauru and Manus Island. The use of offshore detention by states is growing in popularity, as it is being used as a method to prevent and deter the irregular migrants. Australia's border control policies have received international attention, however, it currently remains unknown as to the accuracy of Australia's influence over the development and spread of offshore detention policies globally.
Hence this research seeks to develop an understanding concerning the processes involved with the movement and spread of Australia's offshore detention policies both spatially and temporally, since 2001.
Meg Randolph: Meg.Randolph@monash.edu
Marie Segrave: Marie.Segrave@monash.edu
Jarrett Blaustein: Jarrett.Blaustein@monash.edu
Leanne Weber: Leanne.Weber@canberra.edu.au
Dr Shih Joo (Siru) Tan's thesis examines the experiences of female migrant domestic workers and employers in Singapore and Hong Kong. Through employing a gendered everyday security lens, it identifies how emotional work and affective relations (rather than criminal or labour law) are central to the employment experiences and negotiation of safe work for domestic workers.
Tan, SJ & Segrave, M 2020, ‘An Examination of Counter Trafficking Responses in the Asian Region: Hong Kong and Singapore’. In J Winterdyk & J Jones (eds.), The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking, Palgrave Macmillan, pp.917-934.
Yap, YY & Tan, SJ (2020), ‘Capital punishment in Singapore: A Critical Analysis of State Justifications from 2004 to 2018’, International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, vol. 9, no. 2.
Tan, SJ (2018), ‘Review of domestic minor sex trafficking’, Journal of Human Trafficking, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 276-278.