The Migration, Borders and Policy Observatory
The Migration, Borders and Policy Observatory is an expansion and rebranding of the virtual research Centre hosted at Monash University from 2010-2020: The Border Crossing Observatory. The Migration, Borders and Policy Observatory research theme is a key platform of MMIC, focused specifically on the intersection of border control and immigration law, regulations and policy with border crossing experiences and patterns.
The research across this theme includes human trafficking and modern slavery, migrant worker exploitation and abuse including unlawful migrant workers, deportation and offshore detention policy transfer. The research theme also maintains the Border Deaths Database: Australia's only data collection system that accounts for border-related deaths. While the research theme is informed by interdisciplinary approaches and draws on expertise across a range of fields, it is heavily focused on border criminology scholarship and scholars who are leading research in this field internationally.
Associate Professor Marie Segrave
Associate Professor of Criminology, Faculty of Arts
Associate Professor Dayna Simpson
Associate Professor of Operations and Supply Chain Management, Faculty of Business
Tan, SJ & Segrave, M 2020, ‘An Examination of Counter Trafficking Responses in the Asian Region: Hong Kong and Singapore’. In J Winterdyk & J Jones (eds.), The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking, Palgrave Macmillan, pp.917-934.
Powell, R. & Segrave, M. 2018, ‘In the absence of sympathy: Serious criminal offenders and the impact of border control measures’, in A Fili, S Jahnsen and R Powell (eds.) Criminal Justice Research in an Era of Mass Mobility, Palgrave: London.
Weber, L. & Powell, R. 2017, ‘Ripples Across the Pacific: Cycles of Risk and Exclusion Following Criminal Deportation to Samoa’ in S. Khsoravi, After Deportation: Ethnographic perspectives, Palgrave Macmillan.
Powell, R. (2020) 'Tracing the Characteristics of Crimmigration in the Evolution of Australia’s Criminal Deportation Policy 1958-2018' Border Criminologies, 27 July 2020.
Weber, L. and Powell R. (2020) 'Crime, pre-crime and sub-crime: Deportation of 'risky non-citizens' as 'enemy crimmigration'' in J. Pratt and J, Anderson (eds.) Criminal Justice, Risk and the Revolt against Uncertainty, Palgrave McMillan.
Yap, YY & Tan, SJ (2020), ‘Capital punishment in Singapore: A Critical Analysis of State Justifications from 2004 to 2018’, International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, vol. 9, no. 2.
Powell, R. (2019) 'Questions of fairness: New Zealander experiences of s501 and the case of Shane Martin' Overland, 6 June 2019. Available online.
Martin, D. & Powell, R. (2018), 'Proposed change to Migration Act opens the way to deporting children' Right Now, 23 November 2018.
Tan, SJ (2018), ‘Review of domestic minor sex trafficking’, Journal of Human Trafficking, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 276-278.
Powell, R. (2020) Submission to the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights Working Group on the use of mercenaries, on the role of private military and security companies in immigration and border management and the impact on the protection of the rights of all migrants, 'Convicted New Zealander experiences with Serco security company ,law and border enforcement personnel in immigration detention and s501 deportation from Australia' August, 2020.
Powell, R. & Martin, D. 2018, 'Border Crossing Observatory submission to the Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee on the Migration Amendment (Strengthening the Character Test) Bill 2018', 3 December 2018.
Powell, R. & Weber, L. 2018, 'Border Crossing Observatory submission to the Joint Standing Committee on Migration review processes associated with visa cancellations made on criminal grounds' 27 April 2017.
Featured projects View
We are building a world-leading centre that will build on international efforts to understand and mitigate the impact of anti-slavery interventions. The centre will work collaboratively with other universities, international corporations, governments and non-government organisations to work towards real and sustained impact in reducing exploitation.
See more on the Trafficking and slavery research group website.
The Monash Migration and Inclusion Centre, Monash Gender and Family Violence Prevention Centre, and Monash Centre for Gender, Peace and Security worked in partnership with UN Women and the ILO to strengthen women migrant worker’s rights within the ASEAN region.
This study was conducted in 8 ASEAN countries of transit and destination, exploring the mechanisms in place to support women migrant workers’ access to essential services. The data collected in this study will be utilised to support front-line service providers and increase their capacity to respond to the needs of women migrants who experienced violence and trafficking.
The Safe and Fair programme incorporates the objective of ‘leaving no one behind’ established in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable development.
Marie Segrave’s ARC DECRA research investigates experiences, knowledge and understandings of labour exploitation of unlawful migrant workers in Australia. Unlawful migrant labour has been identified as a significant issue for Australia, with estimates that between 50-100,000 non citizens are working illegally in Australia (Howell 2011). While increasingly immigration and labour regulatory responses are merging to respond to this issue, the impact of these practices upon the level and nature of victimisation and conditions of exploitation requires investigation.
Through examining experiences across the agricultural, construction and hospitality industries this research seeks to identify whether and how regulatory systems impact on exploitative conditions experienced by unlawful migration labourers. The research investigates, maps and analyses exploitation and regulation as experienced by unlawful migrant labourers.
The 2017 publication, Exploited and Illegal: Unlawful migrant workers in Australia – is associated with this project, and seeks to draw attention primarily to the issue of unlawful migrant work in Australia; to debunk some key myths around this population; and to raise a challenge to policy makers and legislators to look towards a future that will enable impact labour reform to be achieved – reform that will reduce the levels of exploitation and modern slavery occurring within Australia.
The Australian Border Deaths Database maintains a record of all known deaths associated with Australia’s borders since 1 January 2000. Currently the database contains summary details of 2,031 deaths.
The database was established by Professor Sharon Pickering and Associate Professor Leanne Weber as part of BOb’s Deaths at the Global Frontier project, which culminated in 2011 in the publication of the book Globalization and Borders: Death at the Global Frontier.
See the explanation of the scope and limitations of the data.
SBS has developed a visual representation of the Australian Border Deaths Database data, which you can access on their website. The infographic only contains data up to the beginning of 2015.
The database can also be made available as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet upon request. Contact us at email@example.com to obtain the latest version.
You can check out our latest available Annual Report on border-related deaths.
If you would like to report a border death to us please email firstname.lastname@example.org
If you know anyone who has gone missing while travelling to Australia, the Red Cross Find my Family Tracing Service can help.
Our sincere thanks to Michael Sinclair-Jones for permission to use his photograph of the SIEV-X memorial stones as the tile image for the Australian Border Deaths Database.
Since amendments were made to Section 501 of the Migration Act – visa cancellation and refusal on character grounds – in December 2014, New Zealanders are the largest nationality group of persons who have their visa cancelled under s501, which then renders them unlawful non-citizens. As a result, they are the largest nationality group in Australia’s immigration detention network and the largest nationality group to be deported from Australia under s501. A number of these are permanent and long term residents who had lived in Australia since childhood or a period of 10 years or more. This research seeks to present an understanding of the Australian deportation experience for those convicted New Zealanders who have their visa cancelled under s501.
Very little is known about visa cancellation and deportation policy and practice against convicted New Zealanders from Australia and the human impact this experience has on deportees and their families. While this aspect is at the heart of this research, administrative decision making surrounding visa cancellation and deportation against convicted non-citizens will be explored within a crimmigration, risk society and pre-crime framework. In s501 decision making, convicted non-citizens are often constructed as a risk to the Australian community as a means to justify visa cancellation and removal decisions which then has an impact on the individual circumstances and human rights of New Zealander long term residents of Australia.
This research project builds upon the Australian Deportation Project that examines contemporary deportations from Australia. The overarching objective of this research is to examine the rise in crimmigration responses towards convicted non-citizens in the evolution of visa cancellation and deportation policy and practice, and the intersection of risk and human rights with regards to the visa cancellation process, its application and impact on the group most affected by this policy and practice: New Zealand citizens.
Overall research question
How has Australian criminal deportation policy and practice changed over time and what have been the impacts on New Zealander criminal deportees and their families?
Detailed research questions
- To what extent does the evolution of Australia’s criminal deportation policy from 1958-2018 incorporate characteristics of crimmigration and human rights protections for convicted non-citizens?
- In what ways are considerations of risk and human rights presented in policy evident in s501 visa cancellation Administrative Appeal Tribunal (AAT) review outcomes for convicted New Zealanders?
- How have convicted New Zealanders and family Members experienced s501 visa cancellation and deportation since policy amendments were made in December 2014?
Rebecca Powell Rebecca.email@example.com
Marie Segrave firstname.lastname@example.org
Leanne Weber: Leanne.Weber@canberra.edu.au
The use of offshore detention has been witnessed within the Australian context following the arrival of the MV Tampa. This event resulted in the introduction of the Pacific Solution and the establishment of offshore detention centres on both Nauru and Manus Island. The use of offshore detention by states is growing in popularity, as it is being used as a method to prevent and deter the irregular migrants. Australia's border control policies have received international attention, however, it currently remains unknown as to the accuracy of Australia's influence over the development and spread of offshore detention policies globally.
Hence this research seeks to develop an understanding concerning the processes involved with the movement and spread of Australia's offshore detention policies both spatially and temporally, since 2001.
Meg Randolph: Meg.Randolph@monash.edu
Marie Segrave: Marie.Segrave@monash.edu
Jarrett Blaustein: Jarrett.Blaustein@monash.edu
Leanne Weber: Leanne.Weber@canberra.edu.au
Dr Shih Joo (Siru) Tan's thesis examines the experiences of female migrant domestic workers and employers in Singapore and Hong Kong. Through employing a gendered everyday security lens, it identifies how emotional work and affective relations (rather than criminal or labour law) are central to the employment experiences and negotiation of safe work for domestic workers.