The Song of the Tiger Shark at Manankurra

The Song of the Tiger Shark at Manankurra (Manankurra Kujika) (2008)

This song line of kujika belongs to the Rrumburriya clan; it is the first section of a song line that was put into the country by the Tiger Shark Dreaming. The Dreamings from the Saltwater Country (Narnu-Yuwa ki Anthaa) is the second section of the Tiger Shark Dreaming song line of kujika.

The Song of the Tiger Shark at Manankurra (Manankurra Kujika) sings the cycad trees, the freshwater well, children playing, people gathering water, the river and many other things that can still be found at Manankurra today.

© The Yanyuwa People Borroloola, Northern Territory, Australia, 2008.

1. The Manankurra kujika

1.1 Meaning and significance for the Yanyuwa people

The singing depicted in this animation is the first section of a kujika or songline belonging to the Rrumburriya clan of the Yanyuwa People. Kujika are sacred and important songlines or song cycles that the Dreaming ancestors have embedded in the earth, and which are thought still to be coursing through the earth. Yanyuwa men give voice to these songs, and they are used in various ceremonial performances. They are also sometimes sung alone as quiet meditation on one’s country, and sometimes used to rock children to sleep.1 Kujika tell of the journeys and actions of the Dreaming ancestors as they crossed the land.2

The section of kujika shown in this animation travels through Manankurra, and was placed there by the Tiger Shark (Yulungurri). Manankurra is wirrimalaru awara or ‘big place’ on Yanyuwa country: a special place for Yanyuwa people. It is located in the Northern Territory on the eastern bank of a large bend in the Wearyan River, twelve kilometres upstream from where the Wearyan flows into the Gulf of Carpentaria.3

Figure 1. Map of Yanyuwa Country showing location of Manankurra (Credit: John Bradley)

A grove of cycad palms grows at Manankurra, near a freshwater well. The cycad palms (ma-rnbaka) are known as an important source of food for the Yanyuwa people. According to Yanyuwa belief, the cycad palms spreading out from Manankurra were placed there by the Tiger Shark, who travelled to Manankurra from the southern Gulf of Carpentaria.4

Figure 2. Manankurra on the Wearyan River, looking down to the sea (Credit: li-Anthawirriyarra Rangers)

The kujika of the Tiger Shark Dreaming tells of the journey of the Tiger Shark, travelling from the southern Gulf of Carpentaria up the Wearyan River until he reaches Manankurra—and yet the kujika begins at Manankurra, travelling in the opposite direction, downstream and back out to sea. Because of this, Yanyuwa people often comment that the Tiger Shark sang his song backwards.5 Yanyuwa man Ron Ricket Mururndu has said that at Manankurra “the shark was at the well singing, he was sending his song back to the country where he had travelled”.6

1.2 Path of the kujika through Manankurra and beyond

Figure 3. Cross-section of the Tiger Shark kujika as it travels through Manankurra (Credit: John Bradley)

The kujika of the Tiger Shark Dreaming travels along a very specific pathway through the country. At Manankurra, it rises up from the freshwater well and travels on the east bank of the Wearyan River. It then follows a small creek down into the river, and goes far into the waters of the river and into a deep hole in the riverbed on the eastern side of the bend at Manankurra. The kujika stays in the depths of the river passing by Malamalaburriya, and then at Mungkurrangtharrgu it climbs up the eastern bank of the river.7

Figure 4. Tiger Shark kujika (in orange) from Manankurra to Walala (Credit: John Bradley)

This map of the entire kujika shows that it travels approximately 55 kilometres, over both land and sea. It travels from Manankurra (also known as Manangoora) down the Wearyan River to the ocean, and then north-east over the ocean to Yulbarra (also known as Ulbarra Point) on the west coast of Vanderlin Island. It continues across the island to Wurlkulalarra on the central east coast, before heading north-west to Walala (also known as Lake Eames).8

The Dreamings from the Saltwater Country (Narnu-Yuwa ki Anthaa) animation shows another section of the Tiger Shark Dreaming kujika, as it travels out from the Wearyan River into the Gulf of Carpentaria.

1.3 Singing kujika verses

Yanyuwa man Ron Ricket Mururndu describes the singing of kujika verses moving through Manankurra in this way:

The eye, the well [water source] of the Tiger Shark is there at Manankurra, it is there that the Tiger Shark climbed up singing, the shark was at the well singing, he was sending his song back to the country where he had travelled, we are naming the well Dungkurrumaji, my father’s name. The Tiger Shark was at the well singing and so it is we are singing the well and the trees that surround it, then we are singing the double-barred finches and the bar-shouldered doves that come to drink at the well. Onwards then we are carrying the song and we are singing the very tall cycad palms which have as their personal name Yulungurri, the same as the shark, then we are singing the white barked gum tree which is named in the song as Karrijiji, the same name as my father’s brother. We are singing northwards, and we descend down into the depths of the river. We are singing the mouth of the shark. Down in the depths of the river we are singing, we sing the bundle of soaking cycad and we follow the high tide when the current is flowing strongly downstream. We continue singing northwards and then we are climbing, up onto the riverbank, onwards now along the riverbank we are singing. We are singing the tall steep sides of the eastern riverbank, it is the mainland, yes we are still singing on the mainland, we are singing the camps for the old people. We are singing the children who will not stop talking, we sing the bark canoes and the old man making the fishing net, the cycad bread and the footpaths along the top of the riverbank. Then onwards and northwards we follow the path of this song; in its fullness and completeness we are singing it… 9

1.4 Ceremonial use

The Rrumburriya Tiger Shark kujika is sung at a number of different times. It is sung during the tying on of hair belts around the waists of rdaru, young Rrumburriya boys ready for initiation. It is also sung on the final night of the a-Marndiwa circumcision ceremony for Rrumburriya boys, from 10pm to just before sunrise. It is also sung as Jawala (death kujika), when Rrumburriya kinsmen and women are close to death or have just died.10

2. Making of the animation

2.1 Consulting and collaborating

'The Song of the Tiger Shark at Manankurra' was produced in 2008 as part of the Yanyuwa animation project, a partnership between Yanyuwa elders (li-Yanyuwa li-Wirdiwalangu) and Monash University which produced seven Yanyuwa animations and formed the initial impetus for Wunungu Awara. The Yanyuwa animation project was developed through the kin relationship and friendship for over thirty years between Yanyuwa elders and John Bradley, as a progression of their endeavours to preserve the knowledge contained in their language. Yanyuwa elders were interested in Bradley’s drawings of their stories and songs, including those he developed for the Tiger Shark kujika at Manankurra, but it was when he illustrated the dreaming stories as an atlas that the Yanyuwa declared they needed ‘images that moved’ for their stories to be told properly. This was where animation as a tool for language continuation originated, as a way of preserving what in the West we might call cultural heritage, but what the Yanyuwa called Law.11

The choice of 3D animation format was chosen after the li-Yanyuwa li-Wirdiwalangu viewed every form of animation available and they did not like any of them for various reasons. One day Dr Tom Chandler at Monash University’s SensiLab approached John Bradley and asked if he had anything he would like animated using 3D animation. Chandler had been using 3D animation for archaeological recreations of Angkor Wat. These were shown to the Yanyuwa and they said yes. This was the style of animation they wanted based on the 3D animation’s ability to translate their stories and characters, and rebuild country in a way that was relevant to them; they wanted their stories to ‘look real.’ The Yanyuwa decided the way to test the 3D animation format, and the academic team that was to animate the story.12

In this partnership between Yanyuwa elders and Monash University, the Yanyuwa people retain ownership and copyright over the animation and the cultural knowledge and property contained with it, as well as exercising control over the style of animation and the timeline of the project, and have final approval of the completed animation before it is made available to the public. This form of partnership and collaboration has been used as a model for the individual partnerships that Wunungu Awara has since developed with other communities Australia-wide.

2.2 Storyboarding

The following images show some of the storyboards developed by John Bradley in collaboration with the Yanyuwa people over a number of years, which were then used to create ‘The Song of the Tiger Shark at Manankurra’.

Figure 5. Storyboard 1a (Credit: John Bradley)

Figure 6. Storyboard 1b (Credit: John Bradley)

2.3 Animating

‘The Song of the Tiger Shark at Manankurra’ was animated by Brent D. McKee and Chandara Ung, under the supervision of SensiLab’s Tom Chandler. Using the storyboards developed by John Bradley and colourised by Nona Cameron, as well as 2D photo references and Google maps satellite images, lead animator Brent D. McKee recreated the landscape of Manankurra as a virtual 3D world, along with the textures and light that are found there. McKee also designed all the animals that appear in the animation, while support animator Chandara Ung designed the men and women carrying water from the well. Ung created 3D models for the animals and humans, sculpting not only the external appearance but the internal skeleton so that each animal can be brought to life through animation. Finally, these landscapes and characters were compiled into a finished movie file by Brent, who oversaw the creative process involved in the animation, visual design, rendering and sound recording.13 When completed, the animation was sent to the Yanyuwa community for input and approval.

2.4 Release and reception

When the first Yanyuwa animations were completed and shown to Yanyuwa families in 2008, Graham Friday, a senior Yanyuwa elder, reflected on the animations as a body of work, and said:

Those animations are our Law, Yanyuwa Law; it is not Law for any other group of people in Australia, no one else. Our old people are dying, they have died too quick, so we had to think of ways to teach our kids so they can know something about their country. We are really happy for these animations, young people, old people we really like them. Let me tell you, people on the outside looking at them, people on the outside, ‘whitefellas or blackfellas’ they have nothing to say, nothing at all, those animations, well, that’s the choice we make, we have to do what we can, we do not want our kids to sit around with nothing in their heads.14

These sentiments were echoed by Dinah Norman, the 85-year-old matriarch of the Yanyuwa community and one of the last fluent speakers of Yanyuwa:

I sit here and I look at these young people, all of them, my grandchildren and all these other children, they do not speak Yanyuwa, they do not hear Yanyuwa, they have not seen the ceremonies of the old people, they do not know, they are in ignorance of all these things, some of them know the country because their parents and grandparents take them, but still they do not know the Law, the Law from the old people. I sit with my grandchildren and I look at the stories (animations) on TV, I am so happy that they are there, I teach my children the Law from the country when they are watching, we are talking about the country and family, maybe, maybe they will learn some of the stories, a little bit of the Law.15

Dinah Norman’s son Leonard Norman was present when his mother spoke these words, and he followed up by saying:

You know those animations are really important to us Yanyuwa people, they are helping to keep our country strong, as kardirdi [mother’s brother] Graham said we are making our own choices about how to teach kids. . . . I am telling you, no one, not one European or Aboriginal has anything to say about this, we make choices, if they are right or wrong we make them.16

3. The Yanyuwa language

3.1 Background and geographic distribution

The Yanyuwa language is part of the Pama-Nyungan group of languages. It is the only surviving language in the Warluwaric language sub-group: the Warluwara, Wagaya, and Bularnu languages are all now considered extinct.

Figure 7. Linguistic boundaries of the Yanyuwa language (Credit: John Bradley)

This map shows the approximate linguistic boundaries of the Yanyuwa language in the southwest Gulf of Carpentaria.

3.2 Male and female dialects

A unique feature of the Yanyuwa language is its system of male and female dialects. This is a system whereby men speak one form of the language and women another form. Men listen to the way the women speak but do not speak in the way the women do and vice-a-versa.17 The only time a man may use the women’s speech forms is when he is quoting something a woman has said and likewise the women only use the male forms when quoting a male speaker. The Yanyuwa give no reason for these two dialects, only saying, “It’s just the way it is… no other reason!”18

3.3 Avoidance, ritual and island speech

In the Yanyuwa language, everyday words are replaced with particular synonyms in certain situations:

  • Avoidance speech – These are words which are used when speaking to or in hearing distance of various relatives. For example, a male speaker must use this dialect when speaking to his sisters, female cousins, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, father-in-law, mother-in-law and his nieces and nephews if their father has died. A female speaker uses it her brothers, male cousins, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, father-in-law, mother-in-law and her nieces and nephews if their mother has died.19
  • Ritual speech – During times of ceremony and other ritual occasions certain everyday words are replaced by words which are used only during the period of that ceremony. These words are sometimes the names of ritual objects or ceremony names, as well as names for various activities which occur during the performance of the ritual.20
  • Island speech – There are a certain number of words in Yanyuwa which people refer to as an “island word” or a “mainland word”. When the Yanyuwa people are on the islands there are certain words which are used to replace the mainland terms.21

3.4 Current status

The Yanyuwa language has been identified as ‘severely endangered’ by the Endangered Languages website.22 In the 2010 book Singing Saltwater Country: Journey to the Songlines of Carpentaria, authored in conjunction with Yanyuwa families, John Bradley wrote, “At the time of writing this book I know of only eleven people alive who can still speak Yanyuwa”.23 Today there are only five semi- to full-time speakers.24 Bradley has been working with the Yanyuwa people of Borroloola for over thirty years, and through this kinship and friendship relationship the old people have begun to record their language in the hope that it could be used to re-engage the younger generations in their language.25 The Yanyuwa people and Bradley have developed a number of cross-generational knowledge sharing and cross-cultural communication tools, including illustrated bilingual renderings of kujika, a dictionary and cultural resource, an illustrated atlas, and a sound archive. The 3D animations of Yanyuwa kujika, stories and songs on this website are a continuation of this project to share and preserve the Yanyuwa language and Yanyuwa knowledge for future generations.

4. Material culture and practices

4.1 Cycad treating

The animation shows a paperbark bundle of cycad palm kernels soaking in a deep hole at the bottom of the Wearyan River, with froth rising from the bundle, as well as paperbark bundles of cycad kernels lying on the eastern bank of the river. The cycad palm, and the edible kernel harvested from the cycad palm, are both highly significant for the Yanyuwa people. Along with the dugong and sea turtle, it is the only food source to be referred to as wurrama, a word that carries the meaning of great authority, importance and emotion.26 The untreated cycad palm kernel is highly toxic and carcinogenic, and the Yanyuwa people use a number of different methods to make it safe for eating. One of those methods is soaking the kernels in water in order to leach the poison out of them. After four days the kernels are considered safe to eat.27

The large grove of cycad palms at Manankurra were placed there by the Tiger Shark, and are essential to the Tiger Shark Dreaming story. The tessellated patterning of the palm trunks signify wounds the Tiger Shark sustained fighting other sharks. The freshwater well located at Manankurra is his eye; his mouth is the deep hole located deep in the waters of the river.28

In an emotive narrative of Manankurra, Eileen McDinny Manankurrmara, a senior owner for this place, recalls that:

This food of strength, this cycad food or great importance, all of the old people they used to gather together here at Manankurra, they would come from the south and all the islands. They would gather here because of this cycad food, they would gather it and wrap it up in paperback bundles or paperback dishes. We grew up on this food…29

4.2 Bark canoes

The animation shows a deep-hulled bark canoe lying on the eastern bank of the Wearyan River at Manankurra. In the Yanyuwa language, the generic term for bark canoes is na-wulka. The large sea-going bark canoes, called na-riyarrku or na-mirrinyungu, were built with a prow, stern and secure bracing, and were used to hunt dugong and sea-turtle out on the ocean. The smaller, simpler bark canoes, used for fishing in lagoons, fresh water systems and the calmer reaches of the salt water river systems, are called na-rnajin.30 The bark canoe shown in the animation is the smaller freshwater canoe known as na-rnajin.

Figure 8. Yanyuwa bark canoes (Credit: John Bradley)

Yanyuwa bark canoes would be made by removing large sheets of bark (na-wamara) from the budanja or messmate tree, and heating these over a fire. This heating causes the bark to become supple, after which it is quickly formed into the required shape; once it cooled, the bark would lose its plasticity. String made from the wattle tree would be used to stitch the canoe, while a sharp pointed stick or harpoon point would be used to punch holes in the bark.31

4.3 Bark dishes for carrying water

The animation shows men and women carrying bark dishes full of water drawn from the freshwater well at Manankurra. In the Yanyuwa language these dishes are known as na-kulkarra, na-bununu or lujuluju. They are made out of paperbark or messmate bark. The men and women are shown carrying the bark dishes on their heads, using a small cushion or headrest made out of paperbark or grass which is known as na-marralaba.32

Figure 9. Yanyuwa bark dish (Credit: Australian National Maritime Museum)

The image shown above depicts a similar bark dish created by Jemima Miller a-Wuwarlu, a senior Yanyuwa woman of the Mambaliya-Wawukarriya clan. This dish, which is part of the Australian National Maritime Museum collection, was made out of a single piece of bark which was heated over a fire, flattened out and reshaped. It was then pleated to a point at each end and tied with string made from the ma-murndararra or kurrajong tree.33

5. Natural history

5.1 Cycad palms, White barked eucalyptus

The animation shows tall cycad palms and white barked eucalyptus standing on the river bank at Manankurra. The cycad palm, ma-arnbaka, is one of the most significant trees in Yanyuwa thought. It is invested with a high degree of emotion that is based upon issues associated with Spirit Ancestors and economic, historical and personal significance. There are large stands of this palm along the lower Wearyan River, with many hundreds of them at Manankurra. They are of the species Cycas angulata. The Yanyuwa language has a vocabulary of 27 different terms to describe this tree and the preparation of the kernel taken from it. These terms describe parts of the tree through to the various stages of preparing the toxic fruit to make it safe to eat. The cycad palm’s special status is marked in several other ways, for example it is the only tree species where the fronds of the palm are not called by the generic term wanjirr, leaf or fronds, but rather nu-warda, meaning ‘its hair’. In Yanyuwa the cycad palm can be described as ma-wurrama, the food of authority, and sometimes but more rarely, ma-wirrimalaru, the food of great spiritual power. Wurrama is a term most commonly in the root of the word for duelling ground where disputes are settled. Although the food is only rarely gathered in contemporary times, amongst the older Yanyuwa people it still remains a tree and food source of singular importance.34

Figure 10. Cycad palms at Manankurra (Credit: Ludo Kuipers)

The cycad palm has the generic term of ma-arnbaka, which is further divided into three terms. The three terms do not represent separate species but reflect the detail by which the Yanyuwa categorise this species. The first term, ma-jamurru, reflects those palms where the trunk is short and the palm’s fronds bend down to touch the ground. The second term, ma-ardakantha, reflects those palms where the fruit can be gathered without having to cut notches in the trunk. The third term, ma kaykalkaykal, reflects those palms that have to be climbed to obtain the fruit, and those palms that are very tall and are classed as being spiritually important and usually left alone. There is also a special term kurdakarnbaka for ‘stunted’ cycad palms, associated with the Wurdaliya clan and the Spirit people Ancestral beings.35

The white barked eucalyptus trees or salmon gums (Eucalyptus alba) on the eastern bank of the Wearyan River at Manankurra were erected by the Tiger Shark Dreaming, and are known in the Yanyuwa language as Karrijiji. This word is also a male personal name which can be given to members of the Rrumburriya clan, and which is associated with the white barked eucalyptus.36 In the Yanyuwa taxonomy of living things, the white barked gum trees are placed in the category of wurnda, which includes paperbarks and other tree species. They are also placed in a further sub-category within wurnda, which is called yilirriwiji and literally means ‘being with blood’. This refers to eucalypt trees that have red coloured sap. Another term used with as much regularity as the above term is ngililiji which can mean literally ‘being with tears’ or ‘with sap’.37

5.2 Crested pigeons, Barred finches

The animation shows crested pigeons and double-barred finches gathering to drink at the freshwater well at Manankurra. The crested pigeon (Ocyphaps lophotes) is known as jakuku in the Yanyuwa language, and is associated with the Rrumburriya clan. The double-barred finch (Taeniopygia bichenovii) is known as a-nyinuma or a-nyinumarri.38

Figure 11. Double-barred finch (Credit: G. Winterflood, Creative Commons)

In the Yanyuwa taxonomy of living things, birds belong to the category of julaki, which includes birds, bats and flying foxes. Julaki are seen, in Yanyuwa eyes, to be the markers of seasonal change and variation. Their movements tell the Yanyuwa which seasons are approaching, which plants are flowering and seeding, and the location of lagoons in the dry season that still may have water.39

Figure 12. Crested pigeon (Credit: J.J. Harrison, Creative Commons)

The verses of kujika at Manankurra describe the crested pigeons as eaters of seeds. This refers to a further sub-category within julaki called nu-minju, which consists of those birds that the Yanyuwa class as seed eaters. The term nu-minju is the dative form of nu-mi or seed. This group consists of a number of parrot species, quails and pigeons with the exception of the Torres Strait pigeon. Both the crested pigeon and the double-barred finch are part of a further sub-category within nu-minju known as na-yumbu na-mi, the eaters of small seeds.40

5.3 Young catfish, River whaler shark, Long-tailed stingray

The animation shows young catfish gathering at the water’s edge, the river whaler shark rich in edible flesh, and the long-tailed stingray with its tail sweeping through the water. In the Yanyuwa taxonomy of living things, the river whaler shark and the stingray belong to the category of adumu, which includes sharks, rays and sawfish. The brown stingrays and river whaler sharks are the two most commonly caught species for eating. The river whaler shark derives one of its names from this usage. In the wet season it grows very fat and travels up the rivers where it is often caught. A shark caught during this time is given the special name awalarrawiji, while at other times it is called a-adumu or a-mayarra. The term a-walarrawiji conveys notions of ‘fatness’.41

The catfish belongs to the category of arlku, which is fish other than sharks, rays and sawfish. The general term for catfish and salmon, jamukawiji, literally means ‘having whiskers’and incorporates catfish and salmon species. Catfish and salmon are a favoured fish of the dry season, with the fork-tailed catfish, mandimandi, being especially favoured. The large salmon catfish, ngurru, are also favoured fish, though as with all catfish, people are wary of the barbed poisonous spines.42

© The Yanyuwa People Borroloola, Northern Territory, Australia, 2008.

6. References

  1. John Bradley with Yanyuwa Families, Singing Saltwater Country: Journey to the Songlines of Carpentaria. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin, 2010, p. 285.
  2. John Bradley and Amanda Kearney, ‘Manankurra: What’s in a name? Placenames and emotional geographies.’ In Aboriginal Placenames: Naming and Re-naming the Australian Landscape edited by Harold Koch and Luise Hercus, 463-480. Canberra: ANU E Press and Aboriginal History Incorporated, 2009, pp. 478-479.
  3. Bradley and Kearney, p. 463.
  4. Bradley and Kearney, p. 466.
  5. Bradley and Kearney, p. 467.
  6. Personal communication with John Bradley, 1988. Quoted in Bradley and Kearney, p. 468.
  7. Yanyuwa families, John Bradley and Nona Cameron, Forget about Flinders: A Yanyuwa Atlas of the South West Gulf of Carpentaria. Brisbane: Yanyuwa families, John Bradley and Nona Cameron, 2003, pp. 306-307.
  8. Singing Saltwater Country, p. 58.
  9. Personal communication with John Bradley, 1988. Quoted in Bradley and Kearney, p. 468.
  10. Singing Saltwater Country, p. 58.
  11. Shannon Faulkhead, John Bradley and Brent McKee, ‘Animating Language: Continuing intergenerational Indigenous language knowledge.’ In The Routledge Companion to Cultural Property edited by Jane Anderson and Haidy Geismar, 452-472. London: Routledge, 2017, pp. 452-543.
  12. Faulkhead, Bradley and McKee, p. 453.
  13. https://www.monash.edu/news/articles/3d-animation-helps-preserve-indigenous-history
  14. Personal communication with John Bradley, quoted in Faulkhead, Bradley and McKee, p. 454.
  15. Personal communication with John Bradley, quoted in Faulkhead, Bradley and McKee, pp. 454-455.
  16. Personal communication with John Bradley, quoted in Faulkhead, Bradley and McKee, p. 455.
  17. John Bradley, with Jean Kirton and the Yanyuwa Community, Yanyuwa Wuka: Language from Yanyuwa Country. A Yanyuwa Dictionary and Cultural Resource. Unpublished document held at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, 1992, p. 45.
  18. Yanyuwa Dictionary, p. 49.
  19. Yanyuwa Dictionary, p. 44.
  20. Yanyuwa Dictionary, p. 45.
  21. Yanyuwa Dictionary, p. 44.
  22. http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/4317
  23. Singing Saltwater Country, p. xiv.
  24. Faulkhead, Bradley and McKee, p. 456.
  25. Faulkhead, Bradley and McKee, p. 452.
  26. John Bradley, and Miles Holmes, Dinah Norman Marrngawi, Annie Isaac Karrakayn, Jemima Miller Wuwarlu and Ida Ninganga, Yumbulyumbulmantha ki-Awarawu: All Kinds of Things from Country: Yanyuwa Ethnobiological Classification. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Unit Research Report Series 6. Brisbane: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Unit, University of Queensland, 2006, p. 104.
  27. John Bradley, ‘The social, economic and historical construction of cycad palms among the Yanyuwa.’ In The Social Archaeology of Australian Indigenous Societies edited by Bruno David, Bryce Barker and Ian J. McNiven, 161-181. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 2006, p. 171.
  28. Singing Saltwater Country, p. 60.
  29. Eileen McDinny Manankurrmara in Forget About Flinders, p. 185.
  30. John Bradley, ‘Yanyuwa Bark Canoes: A brief survey of their use by the Yanyuwa people of the south western Gulf of Carpentaria.’ The Great Circle 13.2 (1991): 85-96, p. 85.
  31. ‘Yanyuwa Bark Canoes’, p. 90.
  32. Yanyuwa Dictionary, p. 233.
  33. http://collections.anmm.gov.au/objects/32642/
  34. Yanyuwa Ethnobiological Classification, p. 104.
  35. Yanyuwa Ethnobiological Classification, p. 104.
  36. Yanyuwa Dictionary, p. 164.
  37. Yanyuwa Ethnobiological Classification, p. 105.
  38. Yanyuwa Ethnobiological Classification, p. 148.
  39. Yanyuwa Ethnobiological Classification, p. 81.
  40. Yanyuwa Ethnobiological Classification, p. 85.
  41. Yanyuwa Ethnobiological Classification, pp. 47-48.
  42. Yanyuwa Ethnobiological Classification, p. 52.

7. Further Reading

Bradley, John. ‘The social, economic and historical construction of cycad palms among the Yanyuwa.’ In The Social Archaeology of Australian Indigenous Societies edited by Bruno David, Bryce Barker and Ian J McNiven, 161-181. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press, 2006.

Bradley, John. ‘Yanyuwa Bark Canoes: A brief survey of their use by the Yanyuwa people of the south western Gulf of Carpentaria.’ The Great Circle 13.2 (1991): 85-96.

Bradley, John. ‘Yanyuwa: ‘Men speak one way, women speak another’.’ Aboriginal Linguistics 1 (1988): 126-134.

Bradley, John and Amanda Kearney. ‘Manankurra: What’s in a name? Placenames and emotional geographies.’ In Aboriginal Placenames: Naming and Re-naming the Australian Landscape edited by Harold Koch and Luise Hercus, 463-480. Canberra: ANU E Press and Aboriginal History Incorporated, 2009.

Bradley, John and Miles Holmes, Dinah Norman Marrngawi, Annie Isaac Karrakayn, Jemima Miller Wuwarlu and Ida Ninganga. Yumbulyumbulmantha ki-Awarawu: All Kinds of Things from Country: Yanyuwa Ethnobiological Classification. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Unit Research Report Series 6. Brisbane: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Unit, University of Queensland, 2006.

Bradley, John and Elizabeth Mackinlay. ‘Songs from a plastic water rat: An introduction to the musical traditions of the Yanyuwa community of the southwest Gulf of Carpentaria.’ Ngulaig 17 (2000): 1-45.

Bradley, John with Jean Kirton and the Yanyuwa Community. Yanyuwa Wuka: Language from Yanyuwa Country. A Yanyuwa Dictionary and Cultural Resource. Unpublished document held at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, 1992.

Bradley, John with Yanyuwa Families. Singing Saltwater Country: Journey to the Songlines of Carpentaria. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin, 2010.

Faulkhead, Shannon, John Bradley and Brent McKee. ‘Animating Language: Continuing intergenerational Indigenous language knowledge.’ In The Routledge Companion to Cultural Property edited by Jane Anderson and Haidy Geismar, 452-472. London: Routledge, 2017.

Yanyuwa families, John Bradley and Nona Cameron. Forget about Flinders: A Yanyuwa Atlas of the South West Gulf of Carpentaria. Brisbane: Yanyuwa families, John Bradley and Nona Cameron, 2003.

The Yanyuwa People of Borroloola and John Bradley. Yanyuwa Country: The Yanyuwa People of Borroloola Tell the History of Their Land. Richmond: Greenhouse Publications, 1988.