Transport is a major challenge for Australasian cities. Traffic congestion costs are forecast to more than double by 2020. Traffic is degrading the quality of our inner cities. As many citizens die each year from pollution related to urban transport as they do from traffic accidents. As the costs of petrol rise, the disadvantaged in society are further marginalised. Our increasing dependence on cars is already recognised as unsustainable, risking our economic future through oil dependence. Providing high quality public transport has long been seen as a pro-active means of addressing these issues. However, Public Transport service planners and operators face a range of practical financial, operational and social challenges in developing services. Financial pressures in particular demonstrate a need for increased productivity in achieving improved outcomes.