Travel Demand Management

Travel Demand Management

Pedestrians outside Flinders Street Station and St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne

Travel Demand Management (TDM) is a broad term to describe interventions designed to better manage the demand for travel. Such interventions generally exclude the provision of major infrastructure and aim to modify travel decisions so that the adverse impacts of travel can be reduced.

TDM strategies can generally be grouped into one of four areas: improved asset utilisation (e.g. high occupancy vehicle lanes), traffic restraint (e.g. car parking supply restrictions), pricing (e.g. road/cordon pricing) and urban and social changes (e.g. land use changes, travel behaviour change programs).

This research area is relatively broad and covers the development, appraisal and evaluation of TDM initiatives, modelling of road pricing impacts, land use and travel behaviour interactions, car and bicycle parking policies, and travel behaviour change programs.

ITS Staff Contacts

Current Research Activities

Road Pricing

In dense urban cities, the space for road construction is usually quite limited, thus new construction of road infrastructure is not a sustainable solution for the development of transport systems. In view of the expanding population and car ownership in urban areas, how to satisfy the people’s travel desires becomes a big challenge. Hence, traffic demand management is a sound solution for congestion mitigation: diverting traffic demand from congested areas to uncongested roads, so as to achieve a reasonable use of network resources. By reasonably setting toll charges in congested areas, drivers with lower value-of-time and low trip emergency would detour on the less congested or un-tolled roads. Our study on urban congestion pricing focuses on the determination of optimal charging locations as well as the optimal toll rate, with the aim of minimising congestion level on the entire transport network.
Contact: Dr Meead Saberi

Park and ride schemes in a multimodal transport network with travel time uncertainty

This research proposes a model to describe the driver’s mode choice and route choice, which are based on a combined cross nest logit (CNL) and user equilibrium (UE) model. Mathematical programming and varitional inequality are both used. We consider travel time uncertainty on roads which can affect both modal split and route choice. Multi-class demands are considered because different people have different requirements for the travel time and level of service which are not considered in other papers for PNR. Travel time uncertainty and multi-class are quite important for research of PNR for the researches in traffic assignment. Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions can be used to show the correctness of this models. All the functions are monotone and continue, thus, it is obvious that the solutions of this model exits.

Contact: Dr Inhi Kim

Past Research Activities

Travel Demand Management for the Summer Olympic Games and Other Major Events

Researchers at ITS (Monash) have undertaken a large number of research projects for Summer Olympic Games host cities on the strategic approach to travel demand management (TDM) of games event and city access.  ITS (Monash) were the official reviewers for the successful TDM London 2012 Games program and also advised on approaches to TDM implementation.  This role was followed up with advisory assignments for the Rio 2016 games.  ITS (Monash) was also commissioned by Centre for Excellence in Hajj and Umrah to review and assess plans for the Hajj Pilgrimage in Mecca, Saudi Arabia including an assessment of lessons which could be learned from TDM experience with the Summer Olympic Games.

Contact: Professor Graham Currie

Travel Plans for New Residential Developments

Travel plans can be required through the land use planning and approvals process as a way to encourage new residents to use more sustainable forms of transport. Initiatives delivered through a residential travel plan may include the provision of customised information on local transport options, distribution of free public transport tickets, car sharing facilities, and limited car parking provision. The aim of this research program was to assess the effectiveness of travel plans for new residential developments, but to also identify opportunities to enhance their effectiveness. Key results showed that car use was 14 percentage points lower at new residential developments with travel plans compared to matched control sites without travel plans.