Youth Mental Health

Current study

New South Wales Child Development Study

The NSW Child Development Study ( is a longitudinal intergenerational record linkage study that aims to identify early and middle childhood vulnerability and resilience markers for a variety of health, educational and occupational, social, and wellbeing outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood using a NSW population cohort. Improved knowledge of these factors is envisaged to inform policy changes, and the development of effective early intervention and prevention programs for vulnerable youth.


  • NSW Ministry of Health
  • NSW Department of Education
  • NSW Department of Family and Community Services


Below is a list of selected publications.  Visit Pubmed for all publications.

Heide J, Zhang F, Bigos KL, Mann SA, Carr VJ, Shannon Weickert C, Green MJ, Weinberger DR, Vandenberg JI. Differential response to risperidone in schizophrenia patients by KCNH2 genotype and drug metabolizer status. American Journal of Psychiatry 2016; 173: 53-59.

Wu JQ, Green MJ, Gardiner EJ, Tooney PA, Scott RJ, Carr VJ, Cairns MJ. Altered neural signaling and immune pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of schizophrenia patients with cognitive impairment: a transcriptome analysis. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2016; 53: 194-206.

Neil A, Carr V, Mackinnon A, Morgan V. Evidence or ideology? Let the debate continue…More evaluation please! Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2016; 50: 495-496.

Carr VJ, Harris F, Raudino A, Luo L, Kariuki M, Lui EW, Tzoumakis S, Smith M, Holbrook A, Bore M, Brinkman S, Lenroot R, Dix K, Dean K, Laurens KR, Green MJ. Cohort Profile: The New South Wales Child Development Study (NSW-CDS) – An Australian multi-agency, multi-generational, longitudinal record linkage study. BMJ Open 2016; 6 (2): e009023 doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009023.

Sekar A, Bialas AR, de Rivera H, Davis A, Hammond TR, Kamitaki N, Tooley K, Presumey J, Baum M, Van Doren V, Genovese G, Rose SA, Handsaker RE, Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (…Carr VJ,...), Daly MJ, Carroll MC, Stevens B, McCarroll SA. [Multi-author paper] Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4. Nature 2016; 530: 177-183.

Franke B, Stein JL, Ripke S, Anttila V, Hibar DP, van Hulzen KJE, Arias-Vasquez A. Smoller JW, Nichols TE, Neale MC, McIntosh AM, Lee P, McMahon FJ, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Mattheisen M, Andreassen OA, Gruber O, Sachdev PS, Roiz-Santianez R, Sykin AJ, Ehrlich S, Mather KA, Turner JA, Schwarz E, Thalamuthi A, Yao Y, Ho YYW, Martin NG, Wright MJ, Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (…Carr VJ,…), ENIGMA Consortium, O’Donovan MC, Thompson PM, Neale BM, Medland SE, Sullivan PF. [Multi-author paper] Genetic influences on schizophrenia and subcortical brain volumes: large-scale proof of concept. Nature Neuroscience 2016; 19: 420-431.

Pouget JG, Goncalves VF, Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (…Carr VJ,…), Spain SL, Finucane HK, Raychaudhuri S, Kennedy JL, Knight J. [Multi-author paper] Genome-wide association studies suggest limited immune gene enrichment in schizophrenia compared to 5 autoimmune diseases. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2016; 42: 1176-1184.

Siskind D, Harris M, Phillipou A, Morgan V, Waterreus A, Galletly C, Carr V, Harvey C, Castle D. Clozapine users in Australia: their characteristics and experiences of care based on data from the 2010 National Survey of High Impact Psychosis. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 1: 1-13 (Published online, 18 July 2016. DOI:

Kariuki M, Raudino A, Green MJ, Laurens KR, Dean K, Brinkman SA, Lenroot RK, Liu E, Harris F, Luo L, Carr VJ. Hospital admission for infection during early childhood influences developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health 2016; 52: 882-888.

Hess J, Tylee DS, Barve R, de Jong S, Ophoff RA, Kumarasinghe N, Tooney P, Schall U, Gardiner E, Beveriidge N, Scott R, Yasawardene S, Perera A, Mendis J, Carr V, Kelly B, Cairns M, Tsuang M, Glatt S. Transcriptome-wide mega-analyses reveal joint dysregulation of immunologic genes and transcription regulators in brain and blood in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2016; 176: 114-124.

Matheson SL, Kariuki M, Green M, Dean K, Harris F, Tzoumakis S, Tarren-Sweeney M, Brinkman S, Chilvers M, Sprague T, Carr V, Laurens K. Effects of maltreatment and schizophrenia spectrum disorders on early childhood social-emotional functioning: A population record linkage study. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences (Published online, 4 August 2016. DOI: 10.1017/S204579601600055X).

Stain HJ, Bucci S, Baker A, Carr V, Emsley R, Halpin S, Lewin T, Schall U, Clarke V, Crittenden K, Startup M. A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy versus non-directive reflective listening for young people at ultra high risk of developing psychosis: The Detection and Evaluation of Psychological Therapy (DEPTh) trial. Schizophrenia Research 2016; 176: 212-219.

Quide Y, O’Reilly N, Rowland JE, Carr VJ, Elzinga BM, Green MJ. Effects of childhood trauma on working memory in affective and non-affective psychotic disorders. Brain Imaging and Behavior (Published online, 18 April 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s11682-016-9548-z).

Conrad AM, Lewin TJ, Sly KA, Schall U, Halpin SA, Hunter M, Carr VJ. Utility of risk status information among young people presenting to a specialized community mental health service: psychosis and related outcomes. Psychiatry Research 2017; 247: 336-344.

CNV and Schizophrenia Working Groups of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (…Carr VJ…) [Multi-author paper]. Contribution of copy number variants to schizophrenia from a genome-wide study of 41,321 subjects. Nature Genetics 2017; 49: 27-35.

Klauser P, Baker S, Creopley V, Bousman C, Fornito A, Cocchi L, Fulleron J, Rasser P, Schall U, Henskens F, Michie P, Loughland C, Catts S, Mowry B, Weickert TW, Shannon Weikert C, Carr V, Lenroot R, Pantelis C, Zalesky A. White matter disruptions in schizophrenia are spatially widespread and topologically converge on brain network hubs. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2017; 43: 425-435.

Morgan V, Waterreus A, Carr V, Castle D, Cohen M, Harvey C, Galletly C, Mackinnon A, McGorry P, McGrath JJ, Neil AL, Saw S, Badcock JC, Foley DL, Waghorn G, Coker S, Jablensky A. Responding to challenges for people with psychotic illness: Updated evidence from the Survey of High Impact Psychosis – SHIP. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2017; 51: 124-140.

Atkinson RJ, Fulham WR, Michie PT, Ward PB, Todd J, Stain H, Langdon R, Thienel R, Paulik G, Cooper G, Anthes L, Bowen D, Case V, Clark S, Collins-Langworthy J, Curtis J, Ehlkes T, Haddow T, Lawrence C, Logan S, Loneragan C, Loughland C, Matthursal D, O’Donnell M, Paine K, Sharp T, Scott R, Sculley A, Seal M, Thompson P, Tooney M, Tooney P, Treen L, Whitton A, Rasser P, Carr V, Weickert TW, Schall U. Electrophysiological, cognitive and clinical profiles of at-risk mental state: The longitudinal minds in transition (MinT) study. PLoS ONE 2017; 12: (2): e0171657.

Laurens KR, Tzoumakis S, Kariuki M, Green MJ, Hamde M, Harris F, Carr VJ, Dean K. Pervasive influence of maternal and paternal criminal offending on early childhood development: A population data linkage study. Psychological Medicine 2017; 47: 889-901.

Tzoumakis S, Dean K, Green MJ, Zheng C, Kariuki M, Harris F, Carr VJ, Laurens KR. The impact of parental offending on offspring aggression in early childhood: A population-based record linkage study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2017; 52: 445-455.

Green MJ, McIntyre B, Kariuki M, Marks ADG, Laurens KR, Dean K, Chilvers M, Harris F, Butler M, Brinkman SA, Carr VJ. Childhood maltreatment and early developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years. Child Development (Accepted for publication, 14 June 2017).

Stain HJ, Halpin SA, Baker AL, Startup M, Carr VJ, Schall U, Crittenden K, Clarke V, Lewin TJ, Bucci S. The impact of rurality and substance use on young people at ultra high risk of psychosis. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2017; (Published online, 26 July 2017).

Quide Y, Ong XH, Mohnke S, Schnell K, Walter H, Carr VJ, Green MJ. Childhood trauma-related brain alterations in brain functioning during a Theory-of-Mind task in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research (Published online 24 February 2017).

Laurens KR, Tzoumakis S, Dean K, Bore M, Lenroot R, Brinkman S, Smith M, Holbrook A, Robinson K, Stevens R, Harris F, Carr VJ, Green MJ. The 2015 Middle Childhood Survey (MCS) of mental health and wellbeing at age 11 years in an Australian population cohort. BMJ Open 2017; 7: e016244-e016244.

Kelly S, Jahanshad N, Zalesky A, Kochunov P, (…Carr V), van Erp TGM, Turner J, Thompson PM, Donohoe G, for the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. [Multi-author paper] Widespread white matter microstructural differences in schizophrenia across 4322 individuals: results from the ENIGMA Schizophrenia DTI Working Group. Molecular Psychiatry;  (Published online, 17 October 2017).

Green MJ, Tzoumakis S, Laurens KR, Dean K, Kariuki M, Harris F, O’Reilly N, Chilvers M, Brinkman SA, Carr VJ. Latent profiles of early developmental vulnerabilities in a NSW child population at age 5 years. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry (Published online, 7 November 2017).

Green MJ, Kariuki M, Dean K, Laurens KR, Tzoumakis S, Harris F, Sprague T, Carr VJ. Developmental vulnerabilities in children exposed to infectious and non-infectious diseases during gestation and early childhood, and effects of maternal mental illness. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Accepted for publication, 21 November, 2017).

Quide Y, Matosin N, Atkinson JR, Fitzsimmons C, Cairns MJ, Carr VJ, Green MJ. Common variation in ZNF804A (rs1344706) is not associated with brain morphometry in schizophrenia or healthy participants. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 2018; 82:12-20.

Harris F, Smith M, Laurens KR, Green MJ, Tzoumakis S, Kariuki M, Carr VJ. Validation of a two-factor model of the Best Start Kindergarten Assessment. Australian Journal of Education (Published online, 14 March, 2018).

Neil AL, Carr VJ, Mackinnon A, Foley DL, Morgan VA. Health-related quality-of-life in people living with psychotic illness, and factors associated with its variation. Value in Health (Accepted for publication, 15 February 2018).

Bore M, Laurens KL, Hobbs MJ, Green MJ, Tzoumakis S, Harris F, Carr VJ. Item response theory analysis of the Big Five Questionnaire Short-Form (BFC-SF): A self-report measure of personality in children aged 11-12 years. Journal of Personality Disorders (Accepted for publication, 22 February 2018).

Current projects

  1. NSW Child Development Study Record Linkage
  2. Identifying new targets for primary school mental health interventions using population data
  3. Targeting early contact with the criminal justice system in young people
  4. Achieving better mental health for maltreated children: translating population data into policy
  5. Developmental schizotypy in the general population: Early risk factors and predictive utility

Successful grants

  • 2011-16: NSW Child Development Study Carr V, Laurens K, Holbrook A, Lenroot R, Brinkman S, Bore M, Smith M, Green M. ARC Linkage Projects Grant LP110100150 $429,099.00
  • 2014-17: Identifying new targets for primary school mental health interventions using population data Laurens K, Carr V, Green M, Brinkman S, Dix K, Lenroot R, Dean K. NHMRC Project Grant 1058652 $ 772,647.00
  • 2017-20Targeting early contact with the criminal justice system in young people Dean K, Tzoumakis S, Laurens K, Green M, Carr V. ARC Discovery Project 170101403 $ 372,500.00
  • 2017-20Achieving better mental health for maltreated children: translating population data into policy Green M, Carr V, Katz I, Laurens K, Neil A. NHMRC Partnership Project 1183833 $ 522,705.50
  • 2018-22Developmental schizotypy in the general population: Early risk factors and predictive utility Green M, Carr V, Laurens K, Dean K, Badcock J. NHMRC Project Grant 1148055 $ 819,480