A series of exposure experiments – recycled water and alternative water sources
Funded by: CRC for Water Quality and Treatment
This project addressed data deficits regarding the exposure profile of users of recycled and alternative water sources in both the domestic and urban context, through the conduct of a series of four experiments. Issues addressed comprised:
- potential exposure to pathogens through use of recycled water for laundry purposes
- required witholding periods before public contact after irrigation of parks with Class B and C recycled water
- characterisation of aerosol exposure from conventional and high efficiency spray devices
- preliminary assessment of the endotoxin content of recycled water and potential for adverse health effects
The project provided relevant data to enable the refinement of exposure estimates and permit more accurate health risk assessment of the implications associated with the supply of recycled and alternative water for a variety of non-potable uses. Data from the study will provide input into the design of Australian National Water Recycling Guidelines and assist water and health regulators decide on safe uses of recycled water for a variety of purposes.
Transfer Rates of Enteric Microorganisms in Recycled Water during Machine Clothes Washing.
O'Toole, J., Sinclair, M. and Leder, K. (2009) Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 75(5); 1256-1263.
Comparative survival of enteric indicators, E. coli and somatic and F-RNA bacteriophages on turf-grass irrigated with recycled water.
O'Toole, J., Sinclair, M., Diaper, C. and Leder, K. (2008) Water Science & Technology, 58(3); 513-518.
Alternative water sources and endotoxin
O'Toole, J., Sinclair, M., Jeavons, T. and Leder, K. (2008) Water Science & Technology, 58(3); 603-607.
Risk in the mist? Deriving data to quantify microbial health risks associated with aerosol generation by water-efficient devices during typical domestic water-using activities.
O'Toole, J., Keywood, M., Sinclair, M. and Leder, K. (2009) Water Science & Technology, 60(11); 2913-2920.
Using bacteriophages in recycled water exposure assessment studies.
O'Toole, J., Sinclair, M. and Leder, K. (2009) Food and Environmental Virology, 1(1); 23-30.
A Series of Exposure Experiments - Recycled Water and Alternative Water Sources: Part A - Aerosol-sizing and Endotoxin Experiments. Research Report 45 CRCWQT
O'Toole, J., Leder, K. and Sinclair, M. (2008) 1-79.
A Series of Exposure Experiments - Recycled Water and Alternative Water Sources: Part B - Microbial transfer efficiency during machine clothes washing and microbial survival turf-grass experiments.
Research Report 46 CRCWQT
O'Toole, J., Leder, K. and Sinclair, M. (2008) 1-82.