Health Stream newsletter

Staff of the Unit produced 100 issues of Health Stream – the quarterly public health newsletter of Water Research Australia. Health Stream provides information on topical issues in health research of particular relevance to the water industry, and updates on the recent literature. This publication is available by subscription from Water Research Australia Limited website.


Angelo KM, Stoney RJ, Brun-Cottan G, Leder K, Grobusch MP, Hochberg N, Kuhn S, Bottieau E, Schlagenhauf P, Chen L, Hynes NA, Perez CP, Mockenhaupt FP, Molina I, Crespillo-Andújar C, Malvy D, Caumes E, Plourde P, Shaw M, McCarthy AE, Piper-Jenks N, Connor BA, Hamer DH, Wilder-Smith A. Zika among international travellers presenting to GeoSentinel sites, 2012-2019: Implications for clinical practice. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2021;27(4):1-9.

Eisen DP, Leder K, Woods RL, Lockery JE, McGuinness SL, Wolfe R, Pilcher D, Moore EM, Shastry A, Nelson MR, Reid CM, McNeil JJ, McBryde ES. Effect of aspirin on deaths associated with sepsis in healthy older people (ANTISEPSIS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled primary prevention trial. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2021;9(2):186-95.

Griffiths D, Leder K, Collie A. Sociodemographic indicators of COVID-19 testing amongst working-age Australians. Health Promotion Journal of Australia. 2021;32(2):361-4.

Leder K, Openshaw JJ, Allotey P, Ansariadi A, Barker SF, et al Study design, rationale and methods of the Revitalising Informal Settlements and their Environments (RISE) study: A cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate environmental and human health impacts of a water-sensitive intervention in informal settlements in Indonesia and Fiji. BMJ Open. 2021;11(1).

Leong KW, Singh KP, Leder K, Tong SYC. Acute kidney injury secondary to severe delayed haemolysis in intravenous artesunate use for severe malaria. BMJ Case Reports. 2021;14(1).

Muehlenbein MP, Angelo KM, Schlagenhauf P, Chen L, Grobusch MP, (...), Leder K, et al. Traveller exposures to animals: A GeoSentinel analysis. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2021;27(7).

Schlagenhauf P, Patel D, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Gautret P, Grobusch MP, Leder K. Variants, vaccines and vaccination passports: Challenges and chances for travel medicine in 2021. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2021;40.

Tendal B, Vogel JP, McDonald S, Norris S, Cumpston M, White H, Leder K, Navarro DF, Cheyne S, Chakraborty S, Murano M, Millard T, Callesen HE, Islam RM, Elliott J, Turner T. Weekly updates of national living evidence-based guidelines: methods for the Australian living guidelines for care of people with COVID-19. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2021;131:11-21.


Bourque DL, Leder K. Progress towards the control of strongyloidiasis in tropical Australia? American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2020;102(2):249-50.

Deng L, Mazzocato P, Saravanos G, Leder K, Britton PN. A high proportion of interseasonal childhood influenza cases in 2019 were travel related. Public Health Research and Practice. 2020;30(2).

French M, Ramirez-Lovering D, Sinharoy SS, Turagabeci A, Latif I, Leder K, Brown R. Informal settlements in a COVID-19 world: Moving beyond upgrading and envisioning revitalization. Cities & Health. 2020

Gautret P, Leder K, Field V, Kain KC, Hamer DH, Libman M. GeoSentinel surveillance of travel-associated infections: What lies in the future? Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2020;36.

Hagmann S, Angelo KA, Huits R, Plewes K, Eperon G, Grobusch M, McCarthy A, Libman M, Caumes E, Leung D, Asgeirsson H, Jensenius M, Schwartz E, Sánchez-Montalva A, Kelly P, Pandey P, Leder K, Bourque D, Yoshimura Y, Mockenhaupt F, van Genderen P. Odolini S, Schlagenhauf P, Connor, Hamer D. Epidemiological, and Clinical Characteristics of International Travelers with Enteric Fever and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of their Isolates: A GeoSentinel Analysis. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy. 2020;64(11).

Nicolini LA, Stoney RJ, Vecchia AD, Grobusch M, Gustret P, Angelo KM, van Genderen PJ, Bottieau E, Leder K, Asgeirsson H, Leung D, Connor B, Pandey P, Toscanini F. Gobbi F, Castelli F, Bassetti M, Hamer D.  Travel-related hepatitis E: a GeoSentinel global surveillance analysis, 1999–2018. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2020;27(7).

McGuinness SL, O'Toole J, Barker SF, Forbes AB, Boving TB, Giriyan A, Patil K, D'Souza F, Vhaval R, Cheng AC, Leder K. Household Water Storage Management, Hygiene Practices, and Associated Drinking Water Quality in Rural India. Environmental Science & Technology. 2020;54(8):4963-73.

McGuinness SL, O'Toole J, Ayton D, Giriyan A, Gaonkar CA, Vhaval R, Cheng AC, Leder K. Barriers and enablers to intervention uptake and health reporting in a water intervention trial in rural India: A qualitative explanatory study. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2020;102(3):507-17.

McGuinness SL, O'Toole J, Forbes AB, Boving TB, Patil K, D'Souza F, Gaonkar CA, Giriyan A, Fiona Barker S, Cheng AC, Sinclair M, Leder K. A stepped wedge cluster-randomized trial assessing the impact of a riverbank filtration intervention to improve access to safe water on health in rural India. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2020;102(3):497-506.

Tse WC, Leder K, Leech M. Humanising medicine in the era of universal masking. Internal Medicine Journal. 2020;50(10):1297.

Vogel JP, Tendal B, Giles M, Whitehead C, Burton W,(...) Leder K, et al. Clinical care of pregnant and postpartum women with COVID-19: Living recommendations from the National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2020;60(6):840-51.


Gautret P, Angelo KM, Asgeirsson H, Duvignaud A, van Genderen PJJ, Bottieau E, Chen LH, Parker S, Connor BA, Barnett ED, Libman M, Hamer DH, Javelle E, Mendelson M, Glans H, Caumes E, Lim PL, Alpern J, Stauffer W, Boggild A, Kain K, Leder K, Torresi J, Plewes K, Ghesquiere W, Malvy D, Chappuis F, Eperon G, Borwein S, Yates J, Ward B, Waggoner J, Wu H, Molina I, Bourque D, Mavunda K, Ujiie M, Katsuna S, Larsen C, Wejse C, Hynes N, Kelly P, Kuhn S, Perez CP, Weitzel T, Jordan S, Saio M, Beadsworth M, Beeching N, Jensenius M, Anderson S, Schlagenhauf P, Weber R. International mass gatherings and travel-associated illness: A GeoSentinel cross-sectional, observational study. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2019;32.

Gibney KB, Leder K. Socioeconomic disparities and infection: it's complicated. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2019;19(2):116-7.

Komadina N, Sullivan SG, Kedzierska K, Quiñones-Parra SM, Leder K, McVernon J. Prior exposure to immunogenic peptides found in human influenza A viruses may influence the age distribution of cases with avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 virus infections. Epidemiology and Infection. 2019;147.

Najnin N, Leder K, Forbes A, Unicomb L, Qadri F, Ram PK, Winch PJ, Begum F, Biswas S, Parvin T, Yeasmin F, Cravioto A, Luby SP. Inconsistency in diarrhea measurements when assessing intervention impact in a non-blinded cluster-randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2019;101(1):51-8.

Najnin N, Leder K, Forbes A, Unicomb L, Winch PJ, Ram PK, Nizame FA, Arman S, Begum F, Biswas S, Cravioto A, Luby SP. Impact of a large-scale handwashing intervention on reported respiratory illness: Findings from a cluster-randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2019;100(3):742-9.

Rowe S, Leder K, Cheng AC. In reply: Influenza and pertussis vaccination of women during pregnancy in Victoria, 2015–2017. Medical Journal of Australia. 2019;211(10):474-.e1.

Rowe SL, Perrett KP, Morey R, Stephens N, Cowie BC, Nolan TM, Leder K, Pitcher H, Sutton B, Cheng AC. Influenza and pertussis vaccination of women during pregnancy in Victoria, 2015–2017. Medical Journal of Australia. 2019;210(10):454-62.

Rowe SL, Stephens N, Cowie BC, Nolan T, Leder K, Cheng AC. Use of data linkage to improve communicable disease surveillance and control in Australia: existing practices, barriers and enablers. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 2019;43(1):33-40.

Schlagenhauf P, Grobusch MP, Leder K, Toovey S, Patel D. Complex choices: Which malaria chemoprophylaxis can be recommended for the pregnant traveller? Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2019;32.

Sohail A, McGuinness SL, Lightowler R, Leder K, Jomon B, Bain CA, Peleg AY. Spectrum of illness among returned Australian travellers from Bali, Indonesia: a 5-year retrospective observational study. Internal Medicine Journal. 2019;49(1):34-40.

Tozan Y, Headley TY, Odhiambo Sewe M, Schwartz E, Shemesh T, Cramer JP, Eberhardt KA, Ramharter M, Harrison N, Leder K, Angheben A, Hatz C, Neumayr A, Chen LH, De Pijper CA, Grobusch MP, Wilder-Smith A. A prospective study on the impact and out-of-pocket costs of dengue illness in international travelers. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2019;100(6):1525-33.


Arnott A, Jones P, Franklin LJ, Spelman D, Leder K, Cheng AC. A registry for patients with asplenia/hyposplenism reduces the risk of infections with encapsulated organisms. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2018;67(4):557-61.

Boving TB, Patil K, D'Souza F, Barker SF, McGuinness SL, O'Toole J, Sinclair M, Forbes AB, Leder K. Performance of riverbank filtration under hydrogeologic conditions along the upper Krishna River in southern India. Water (Switzerland). 2018;11(1)12.

Chen LH, Leder K, Barbre KA, Schlagenhauf P, Libman M, et al. Business travel-associated illness: A GeoSentinel analysis. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2018;25(1).

Chen LH, Leder K, Schlagenhauf P, Libman M, Keystone J, Mendelson M, Gautret P, Schwartz E, Shaw M, MacDonald S, McCarthy A, Connor BA, Hamer DH, Wilson ME. Reply: regarding business travelers. Journal of travel medicine. 2018;25(1).

De Vries SG, Visser BJ, Stoney RJ, Wagenaar JFP, Bottieau E, Chen LH, Wilder-Smith A, Wilson M, Rapp C, Leder K, Caumes E, Schwartz E, Hynes NA, Goorhuis A, Esposito DH, Hamer DH, Grobusch MP. Leptospirosis among returned travelers: A geosentinel site survey and multicenter analysis-1997-2016. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2018;99(1):127-35.

Barker FS, Zomer E, O’Toole J, Sinclair M, Gibney K, Liew D, Leder K. Cost of gastroenteritis in Australia: A healthcare perspective. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(4).

Gautret P, Angelo KM, Asgeirsson H, Lalloo DG, Shaw M, Schwartz E, Libman M, Kain KC, Piyaphanee W, Murphy H, Leder K, Vincelette J, Jensenius M, Waggoner J, Leung D, Borwein S, Blumberg L, Schlagenhauf P, Barnett ED, Hamer DH. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis started during or after travel: A GeoSentinel analysis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2018;12(11). Leder K, Wilson ME. Surveillance of travel-related infections in China. The Lancet Public Health. 2018;3(8):e356-e7.

McGuinness SL, Barker SF, O’Toole J, Cheng AC, Forbes AB, Sinclair M, Leder K. Effect of hygiene interventions on acute respiratory infections in childcare, school and domestic settings in low-and middle-income countries: A systematic review. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2018;23(8):816-33.

Pai Mangalore R, Johnson DF, Leder K. Travellers visiting friends and relatives: a high-risk, under-recognised group for imported infectious diseases. Internal Medicine Journal. 2018;48(7):759-62.

Stoney RJ, Esposito DH, Kozarsky P, Hamer DH, Grobusch MP, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Libman M, Gautret P, Lim PL, Leder K, Schwartz E, Sotir MJ, Licitra C. Infectious diseases acquired by international travellers visiting the USA. Journal of travel medicine. 2018;25(1).

Tacconelli E, Carrara E, Savoldi A, Harbarth S, Mendelson M, et al. A. Discovery, research, and development of new antibiotics: the WHO priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and tuberculosis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2018;18(3):318-27.

Turner D, McGuinness S, Leder K. Antibiotic resistance and overseas travel: Souvenirs that are not in your suitcase. Medicine Today. 2018;19(9):56-8.


Endotoxin health risk associated with high pressure cleaning using reclaimed water.
Barker SF, O'Toole J, Sinclair MI, Keywood M, Leder K. (2017) Microbial Risk Analysis; 5:65-70.

Malaria after international travel: A GeoSentinel analysis, 2003-2016
Angelo, K.M., Libman, M., Caumes, E., Hamer, D.H., Kain, K.C., Leder, K., et al. (2017) Malaria Journal, 16(1);

Closing the gap in travel medicine: Reframing research questions for a new era
Chen, L.H., Leder, K. and Wilson, M.E. (2017) Journal of Travel Medicine, 24(4);

Overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis in patients with asplenia and hyposplenia: A retrospective cohort study
Chong, J., Jones, P., Spelman, D., Leder, K. and Cheng, A.C. (2017) Epidemiology and Infection, 145(2); 397-400.

AspiriN To Inhibit SEPSIS (ANTISEPSIS) randomised controlled trial protocol
Eisen, D.P., Moore, E.M., Leder, K., Lockery, J., McBryde, E.S., McNeil, J.J., Pilcher, D., Wolfe, R. and Woods, R.L. (2017) BMJ Open, 7(1);

Australia's National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System 1991-2011: Expanding, adapting and improving
Gibney, K.B., Cheng, A.C., Hall, R. and Leder, K. (2017) Epidemiology and Infection, 145(5); 1006-1017.

Sociodemographic and geographical inequalities in notifiable infectious diseases in Australia: a retrospective analysis of 21 years of national disease surveillance data
Gibney, K.B., Cheng, A.C., Hall, R. and Leder, K. (2017) The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 17(1); 86-97.

Burden of disease attributed to waterborne transmission of selected enteric pathogens, Australia, 2010
Gibney, K.B., O'Toole, J., Sinclair, M. and Leder, K. (2017) American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 96(6); 1400-1403.

Travel-associated Zika virus disease acquired in the americas through February 2016: A GeoSentinel analysis
Hamer, D.H., Barbre, K.A., Chen, L.H., Grobusch, M.P., Schlagenhauf, P., Goorhuis, A., Van Genderen, P.J.J., Molina, I., Asgeirsson, H., Kozarsky, P.E., Caumes, E., Hagmann, S.H., Mockenhaupt, F.P., Eperon, G., Barnett, E.D., Bottieau, E., Boggild, A.K., Gautret, P., Hynes, N.A., Kuhn, S., Lash, R.R., Leder, K., Libman, M., Malvy, D.J.M., Perret, C., Rothe, C., Schwartz, E., Wilder-Smith, A., Cetron, M.S., Esposito, D.H., Anderson, S., Hacek, J., Kain, K., Lopez-Velez, R., Schade, C. and Wu, H. (2017) Annals of Internal Medicine, 166(2); 99-108.

Travel medicine perspectives of select travel medicine experts practicing in the Asia-Pacific region
Leder, K., Borwein, S., Chanthavanich, P., Chatterjee, S., Htun, K., Marma, A.S.P., Nakatani, I., Ok, J.J., Pakasi, L., Pandey, P., Piyaphanee, W., Rupali, P., Schwartz, E., Shinozuka, T., Phu, P.T.H., Watanabe, H., Visser, J., Wilder-Smith, A., Zhang, M. and McGuinness, S.L. (2017) Journal of Travel Medicine, 24(4);

Global malaria importations
Leder, K. and Chen, L.H. (2017) The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 17(1); 11-12.

Zika beyond the Americas: Travelers as sentinels of Zika virus transmission. A GeoSentinel analysis, 2012 to 2016
Leder, K., Grobusch, M.P., Gautret, P., Chen, L.H., Kuhn, S., Lim, P.L., Yates, J., McCarthy, A.E., Rothe, C., Kato, Y., Bottieau, E., Huber, K., Schwartz, E., Stauffer, W., Malvy, D., Shaw, M.T.M., Rapp, C., Blumberg, L., Jensenius, M., Van Genderen, P.J.J. and Hamer, D.H. (2017) PLoS ONE, 12(10);

Travellers' diarrhoea-a survey of practice
McGrath, C.M. and Leder, K. (2017) Journal of travel medicine, 24(2);

Protocol for a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial assessing the impact of a community-level hygiene intervention and a water intervention using riverbank filtration technology on diarrhoeal prevalence in India
McGuinness, S.L., O'Toole, J.E., Boving, T.B., Forbes, A.B., Sinclair, M., Gautam, S.K. and Leder, K. (2017) BMJ Open, 7(3);

Clostridium difficile infection in returning travellers
Michal Stevens, A., Esposito, D.H., Stoney, R.J., Hamer, D.H., Flores-Figueroa, J., Bottieau, E., Connor, B.A., Gkrania-Klotsas, E., Goorhuis, A., Hynes, N.A., Libman, M., Lopez-Velez, R., McCarthy, A.E., von Sonnenburg, F., Schwartz, E., van Genderen, P.J.J., Scott Benson, L., Leung, D.T., Kain, K., Caumes, E., Àsgeirsson, H., Rothe, C., Stauffer, W., Schlagenhauf, P., Kozarsky, P., Haulman, J., Licitra, C., Yoshimura, Y., Chappuis, F., Mockenhaupt, F., Borwein, S., Jensenius, M., Anderson, S., Castelli, F., Chen, L., Leder, K., Vincelette, J., Shaw, M., Coyle, C., Kelly, P., Cahill, J., Lim, P.L., Kanagawa, S. and Hajek, J. (2017) Journal of Travel Medicine, 24(3);

Challenges to providing pre-travel care for travellers visiting friends and relatives: an audit of a specialist travel medicine clinic
Rowe, K., Chaves, N. and Leder, K. (2017) Journal of travel medicine, 24(5);

Management of dengue in Australian travellers: A retrospective multicentre analysis
Tai, A.Y.C., McGuinness, S.L., Robosa, R., Turner, D., Huang, G.K.L., Leder, K., Korman, T.M., Thevarajan, I., Stewardson, A.J., Padiglione, A.A. and Johnson, D.F. (2017) Medical Journal of Australia, 206(7); 1-6.

Use of pre-travel vaccine-preventable disease serology as a screening tool to identify patients in need of pre-travel vaccination: A retrospective audit
Turner, D.P., McGuinness, S.L., Cohen, J., Waring, L.J. and Leder, K. (2017) Journal of Travel Medicine, 24(3);

A practical approach to vaccination of patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases in Australia
Wong, P.K.K., Bagga, H., Barrett, C., Hanrahan, P., Johnson, D., Katrib, A., Leder, K., Marabani, M., Pentony, P., Riordan, J., White, R. and Young, L. (2017) Internal Medicine Journal, 47(5); 491-500.


Timing of influenza vaccination in an Australian community-based surveillance system, 2010-2014
Coghlan, B., Carlson, S., Leder, K., Dalton, C. and Cheng, A.C. (2016) Communicable diseases intelligence quarterly report, 40(3); E347-E350.

Estimates of influenza vaccine coverage from Victorian surveillance systems based in the community, primary care and hospitals
Coghlan, B., Kelly, H.A., Carlson, S.J., Grant, K.A., Leder, K., Dalton, C.B. and Cheng, A.C. (2016) Communicable diseases intelligence quarterly report, 40(2); E204-E206.

Infectious disease following travel to developed regions: A snapshot of presentations to an Australian travel medicine clinic
Drewett, G. and Leder, K. (2016) Journal of Travel Medicine, 23(6);

Imported infections: What information should be collected by surveillance systems to inform public health policy?
Neave, P.E., Heywood, A.E., Gibney, K.B. and Leder, K. (2016) Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 14(4); 350-359.

Collecting household water usage data: Telephone questionnaire or diary?
O'Toole J E., Sinclair, M I.,Leder, K. (2016) Social Work and Community Practice: 74-93.

Measles in the 21st Century, a Continuing Preventable Risk to Travelers: Data from the GeoSentinel Global Network.
Sotir MJ, Esposito DH, Barnett ED, Leder K, Kozarsky PE, Lim PL, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Hamer DH, Kuhn S, Connor BA, Pradhan R and Caumes E. (2016) Clinical Infectious Diseases, 62(2); 210-212.

Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures
Sinclair M, Roddick F, Nguyen T, O'Toole J and Leder K. (2016) Water Research, 99(1-6).

Variability in 24 hour excretion of cyanuric acid: Implications for water exposure assessment
Sinclair M, Roddick F, Grist S, Nguyen T, O'Toole J and Leder K. (2016) Journal of Water and Health, 14(2); 192-198.

Associations of hospital characteristics with nosocomial pneumonia after cardiac surgery can impact on standardized infection rates
Sanagou M, Leder K, Cheng AC, Pilcher D, Reid CM and Wolfe R. (2016) Epidemiology and Infection, 144(5); 1065-1074.

An overview of the epidemiology of notifiable infectious diseases in Australia, 1991-2011
Gibney KB, Cheng AC, Hall R and Leder K. (2016) Epidemiology and Infection, 1-15.

Review of the causes and management of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms in returned travellers referred to an Australian infectious diseases service
Ferrah N, Leder K and Gibney K. (2016) Australian Family Physician, 45(5); 333-339.

Endotoxin health risk associated with high pressure cleaning using reclaimed water
Barker SF, O'Toole J, Sinclair MI, Keywood M and Leder K. (2016) Microbial Risk Analysis, In press.

Seroprotection to vaccine-preventable diseases among workers at a Victorian tertiary hospital
Andrew EC, Gibney KB, Denholm J and Leder K. (2016) Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 40(3); 284-289.

Book review on Deadly Encounters: How infectious disease helped shape Australia
K Leder, R Hall. (2016) Lancet Infect Dis, (16):533-4.

High conservation level of CD8+ T cell immunogenic regions within an unusual H1N2 human influenza variant
Komadina N, Quiñones-Parra SM, Kedzierska K, McCaw JM, Kelso A, Leder K and McVernon J. (2016) Journal of Medical Virology, 88(10); 1725-1732.


Leprosy: Diagnosis and management in a developed setting
Turner D, McGuiness S and Leder K. (2015) Internal Medicine Journal, 45(1); 109-112.

Vaccine-preventable travel health risks: What is the evidence - What are the gaps?
Steffen R, Behrens RH, Hill DR, Greenaway C and Leder K. (2015) Journal of Travel Medicine, 22(1); 1-12.

Evolution of regulatory targets for drinking water quality
Sinclair M, O'Toole J, Gibney K and Leder K. (2015) Journal of Water and Health, 13(2); 413-426.

Improvements in patient care: Videoconferencing to improve access to interpreters during clinical consultations for refugee and immigrant patients
Schulz TR, Leder K, Akinci I and Biggs BA. (2015) Australian Health Review, 39(4); 395-399.

Adoption of a microbial health-based target for Australian drinking water regulation
O'Toole J, Sinclair M, Gibney K and Leder K. (2015) Journal of Water and Health, 13(3); 662-670.

Explaining low rates of sustained use of siphon water filter: Evidence from follow-up of a randomised controlled trial in Bangladesh
Najnin N, Arman S, Abedin J, Unicomb L, Levine DI, Mahmud M, Leder K, Yeasmin F, Luoto JE, Albert J and Luby SP. (2015) Tropical Medicine and International Health, 20(4); 471-483.

Response to Letter
McGuinness SL, Spelman T, Johnson DF and Leder K. (2015) Journal of Travel Medicine, 22(6); 429-430.

Immediate recall of health issues discussed during a pre-travel consultation
McGuinness SL, Spelman T, Johnson DF and Leder K. (2015) Journal of Travel Medicine, 22(3); 145-151.

Response to Letter
McGuinness SL, Spelman T, Johnson DF and Leder K. (2015) Journal of travel medicine, 22(6); 429-430.

Risk assessment in travel medicine: How to obtain, interpret, and use risk data for informing pre-travel advice
Leder K, Steffen R, Cramer JP and Greenaway C. (2015) Journal of Travel Medicine, 22(1); 13-20.

Training in Travel Medicine and General Practitioners: A Long-Haul Journey!
Leder K, Bouchaud O and Chen LH. (2015) Journal of Travel Medicine, 22(6); 357-360.

Advising travellers about management of travellers' diarrhoea
Leder, K. (2015) Australian Family Physician, 44(1); 34-37.

Leder K. (2015) Australian Family Physician, 44(5); 262-264.

Should we continue to isolate patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococci in hospitals?
Karki S, Leder K and Cheng AC. (2015) Medical Journal of Australia, 202(5); 234-236.

Animal-associated exposure to rabies virus among travelers, 1997-2012
Gautret P, Harvey K, Pandey P, Lim PL, Leder K, Piyaphanee W, Shaw M, McDonald SC, Schwartz E, Esposito DH, Parola P, et al (2015) Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4); 569-577.

Factors associated with transmission of influenza-like illness in a cohort of households containing multiple children
Brown CR, McCaw JM, Fairmaid EJ, Brown LE, Leder K, Sinclair M and McVernon J. (2015) Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, 9(5); 247-254.

An effective strategy for influenza vaccination of healthcare workers in Australia: Experience at a large health service without a mandatory policy
Heinrich-Morrison K, McLellan S, McGinnes U, Carroll B, Watson K, Bass P, Worth LJ and Cheng AC. (2015) BMC Infectious Diseases, 15(1); 42.

Could low grade bacterial infection contribute to low back pain? A systematic review
Urquhart DM, Zheng Y, Cheng AC, Rosenfeld JV, Chan P., Liew S, Hussain SM and Cicuttini FM. (2015) BMC Medicine, 13(1); 13.


Illness in travelers returned from Brazil: The geosentinel experience and implications for the 2014 FIFA world cup and the 2016 summer olympics
Wilson ME, Chen LH, Han PV, Keystone JS, Cramer JP, Segurado A, Hale D, Jensenius M, Schwartz E, Sonnenburg FV and Leder K. (2014) Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58(10); 1347-1356.

Adherence to infection prevention measures in a statewide spleen registry
Wang J, Jones P, Cheng AC and Leder K. (2014) Medical Journal of Australia, 200(9); 538-540.

Using stool antigen to screen for helicobacter pylori in immigrants and refugees from high prevalence countries is relatively cost effective in reducing the burden of gastric cancer and peptic ulceration
Schulz TR, McBryde ES, Leder K and Biggs BA. (2014) PLoS ONE, 9(9);

External validation and updating of a prediction model for nosocomial pneumonia after coronary artery bypass graft surgery
Sanagou M, Wolfe R, Leder K and Reid CM. (2014) Epidemiology and Infection, 142(3); 540-544.

Advice to risk assessors modeling viral health risk associated with household graywater
O'Toole J, Sinclair M, Fiona Barker S and Leder K. (2014) Risk Analysis, 34(5); 797-802.

Imported Plasmodium vivax Malaria ex Pakistan
Odolini S, Gautret P, Kain KC, Smith K, Leder K, Jensenius M, Coyle CM, Castelli F and Matteelli A. (2014) Journal of Travel Medicine, 21(5); 314-317.

Risk factors for community-based reports of gastrointestinal, respiratory, and dermal symptoms: Findings from a cohort study in Australia
Najnin N, Forbes A, Sinclair M and Leder K. (2014) Journal of Epidemiology, 24(1); 39-46.

Regional variation in travel-related illness acquired in Africa, March 1997-May 2011
Mendelson M, Han PV, Vincent P, von Sonnenburg F, Cramer JP, Loutan L, Kain KC, Parola P, Hagmann S, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Sotir M, Schlagenhauf P, Anand R, Ásgeirsson H, Barnett ED, Borwein S, Burchard GD, Cahill JD, Campion D, Castelli F, Caumes E, Chen LH, Connor BA, Coyle CM, Cramer J, Eason J, Ficko C, Field V, Freedman DO, Goorhuis A, Grobusch MP, Gurtman A, Hale DC, Hern A, Hynes N, Jensenius M, Kass R, Klion AD, Kozarsky PE, Leder K. et al (2014) Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(4); 532-541.

The microbiological and sustainability effects of washing anaesthesia breathing circuits less frequently
McGain F, Algie CM, O'Toole J, Lim TF, Mohebbi M, Story DA and Leder K. (2014) Anaesthesia, 69(4); 337-342.

A historical perspective of influenza A(H1N2) virus
Komadina N, McVernon J, Hall R and Leder K. (2014) Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(1); 6-12.

Healthcare provider knowledge, attitudes and practices in patients on the Victorian Spleen Registry
Graf A, Jones P, Cheng AC and Leder K. (2014) Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 38(6); 560-562.

Disease burden of selected gastrointestinal pathogens in Australia, 2010
Gibney KB, O'Toole J, Sinclair M and Leder K. (2014) International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 28(e176-e185.

Educating international students about tuberculosis and infections associated with travel to visit friends and relatives (VFR-travel)
Gibney KB, Brass A, Hume SC and Leder K. (2014) Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 12(3); 274-282.

Health literacy in patients with chronic hepatitis B attending a tertiary hospital in Melbourne: A questionnaire based survey
Dahl TFM, Cowie BC, Biggs BA, Leder K, MacLachlan JH and Marshall C. (2014) BMC Infectious Diseases, 14(1);

Laboratory features of common causes of fever in returned travelers
Cooper EC, Ratnam I, Mohebbi M and Leder K. (2014) Journal of Travel Medicine, 21(4); 235-239.

Global burden of Toxocarisis: A common neglected infection of poverty. (2014) Current Tropical Medicine Reports, (1): 52-61.


S Karki, K Leder, A Cheng. Patients under contact precautions have an increased risk of injuries and medication errors: a retrospective cohort study. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2013;34(10):1118-20.

S Karki, P Shakya, A Cheng, SP Dumre, K Leder. Trends of etiology and drug resistance in enteric fever in last two decades in Nepal: a systematic review and meta-regression. Clin Infect Dis, 2013 Nov;57(10):e167-76.

S McGuinness, J Denholm, K Leder. Notifiable Australian zoonotic infections. MedicineToday 2013; 14(10): 55-64.

S McGuinness, K Leder. Health issues for travellers visiting friends and relatives. Australian Doctor, 31 May, 2103:21-8.

S Karki, G Land, S Aitchison, J Kennon, P Johnson, S Ballard, K Leder, A Cheng. Long term carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in patients discharged from hospital in last 12 years: a retrospective cohort study. J Clin Microbiol, 2013, 51(10): 3374.

K Butcher, BA Biggs, K Leder, C Lemoh, D O’Brien, C Marshall. Understanding of Latent tunerculosis, its treatment and treatment side effects by immigrant and refugee patients. BMC Research Notes, 2013, 6:342.

I Ratnam, K Leder, J Black,J Torresi. Dengue Fever and International Travel. J Trav Med 2013, 20(6): 384-393.

S Karki, K Leder, AC Cheng. Delays in accessing radiology in patients under contact precautions due to colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Am J Infect Control, 2013, 44(11): 1141-1142.

J Kwong, J Druce, K Leder. Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2013 89(3): 516-517.

K Leder, M Mutsch, P Schlagenhauf, C Luxemburger, J Torresi. Seroepidemiology of dengue in travellers: a paired sera analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis, 2013;11:210-3.

K Leder, J Torresi J S. Brownstein, M E Wilson, JS Keystone, E Barnett, E Schwartz, P Schlagenhauf, A Wilder-Smith , F Castelli, F von Sonnenburg, AC Cheng. Longitudinal trends in ill-returned travelers, 2000-2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(7):1049-73.

Stebbing MS, Carey M, Sinclair M and Sim M. Understanding the vulnerability, resilience and adaptive capacity of households in rural Victorian towns in the context of long-term water insecurity. Australian Journal of Water Resources, 2013;17(2): 193-201.

Gibney K, Sinclair M, O’Toole J and Leder K. Using disability-adjusted life years to set health-based targets: A novel use of an established burden of disease metric. J Public Health Policy, 2013; 34(3): 439-446.

K Leder. Managing contacts of chronic hepatitis B patients. Med J Australia, 2013;198(7):366.

DF Johnson, K Leder, J Torresi. Hepatitis B and C Infection in International Travellers. J Trav Med, 2013;20(3):194-202.

DF Johnson, I Ratnam, E Matchett, L Earnest-Silveria, D Christiansen, K Leder, ML Grayson, J Torresi. The incidence of HBV and HCV infection in Australian travellers to Asia. J Trav Med, 2013;20(3):203-5.

I Ratnam, K Leder, J Black, BA Biggs, EMatchett, A Padiglione, I Woolley, T Panagiotidis, T Gherardin, C Demont, L Pollissard, C Luxemburger, J Torresi. Low risk of Japanese encephalitis in short term Australian travellers to Asia. J Trav Med, 2013;20(3):206-8.

Chen LH, Leder K, Wilson ME. Business travellers: vaccination considerations for this population. Exp Rev Vaccines, 2013;12(4):453-66.

Sinclair M, OToole J, Malawaraarachchi M, Leder K. Household greywater use practices in Melbourne, Australia. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 2013;13.2, 294-301.

K Leder, J Torresi, MD. Libman, J P Cramer, F Castelli, P Schlagenhauf, A Wilder-Smith, ME Wilson, JS Keystone, E Schwartz, ED Barnett, F von Sonnenburg, JS Brownstein, AC Cheng, MJ Sotir, DH Esposito, MD, DO Freedman. GeoSentinel Surveillance of Illness in Returned Travelers, 2007-2011. Annals Int Med, 2013;158:456-468.

I Ratnam, J Black, K Leder, BA Biggs, I Gordon, E Matchett, A Padiglione, I Woolley, TPanagiotidis, T Gherardin, L Pollissard, C Demont, C Luxemburger, J Torresi. Incidence and risk factors for acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) and influenza virus infections in Australian travellers to Asia. J Clin Virol, 2013;57(1):54-8.

McCarthy AE, Weld L, Barnett ED, So H, Coyle C, Greenaway C, Stauffer B, Leder K, Lopez-Velez R, Gautret P, Castelli F, Jenks N, Walker, P, Cetron M. Spectrum of Illness in International Migrants Seen at GeoSentinel Clinics in 1997-2009, Part 2: Migrants Resettled Internationally and Evaluated for Specific Health Concerns. Clin Infec Dis, 2013;56(7):925-33.

M Jensenius, P V. Han, P Schlagenhauf, E Schwartz, P Parola, F Castelli, F von Sonnenburg, L Loutan, K Leder, D O. Freedman. Acute and potentially life-threatening tropical diseases in Western travelers - A GeoSentinel multi-center study, 1996-2011. Am J Trop Med Hyg , 2013;88(2):397-404.

Barker, S.F., O'Toole, J., Sinclair, M., Malawaraarachchi, M., Leder K., Hamilton, A.J.2012 A probabilistic model of norovirus disease burden associated with greywater irrigation of home-produced lettuce in Melbourne, Australia. Water Research, 2013;47:1421-32.


Sinclair MI, O'Toole J, Malawaraarachchi M, Leder K. Comparison of response rates and cost-effectiveness for a community-based survey: postal, internet and telephone modes with generic or personalised recruitment approaches. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2012, 12:132.

OToole J, Sinclair M, Hamilton AJ, Barker F, Leder K. Microbial quality assessment of household greywater. Water Res Water Res, 2012;46(13):4301-13.

N Najnin, M Sinclair, A Forbes, K Leder. Community based study to compare the incidence and health services utilization pyramid for gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermal symptoms. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Jul 23;12:211.

M Sinclair, J O’Toole, M Malawaraarachchi, K Leder. Household behaviour and motivations for greywater use. Water, 2012, 39(3):83-87.

Rodrigo S, Sinclair M, Leder K. Water and sediment quality of rainwater tanks. Water, 2012 39(1): 83-87.

Gautret, P; Gaudart, J; Leder, K; Schwartz, E; Castelli, F; Lim, PL; Murphy, H; Keystone, J; Cramer, J; Shaw, M; Boddaert, J; von Sonnenburg, F; Parola, P. Travel-Associated Illness In Older Adults. J Trav Med, 2012; 19(3):169-77.

K Leder, L Chen, M Wilson. Aggregate travel vs. single trip assessment: arguments for cumulative risk analysis. Vaccine, 2012, 30(15):2600-4.

Schulz T, Leder K, Maloof T, Biggs BA. Health issues in the refugee population. Medicine Today, 2012; 13(3): 79-85.

I Ratnam, J Black, J Torresi,  E Matchett, K Leder, BA Biggs, I Woolley, A Padiglione, C Demont, L Pollissard, C Luxemburger, T Gherardin, T Panagiotidis. Incidence and Seroprevalence of Dengue Virus Infections in Australian Travellers to Asia. EJCMID, 2012 Jun;31(6):1203-10.


K Leder, S Lau, P Leggat. Innovative community-based initiatives to engage VFR travelers. TMAID, 2011, 9, 258-61.

JM Pasricha, AC Street, K Leder. A rash and cough in a traveller. Clin Infect Dis, 2011;53(2):205-6.

Hrudey, S.E., Conant, B., Douglas, J., Fawell, J., Gillespie, T., Hill, D., Leiss, W., Rose, J.B. and Sinclair, M. Managing uncertainty in the provision of safe drinking water. Water Science & Technology, 2011;11(6): 675-681.

M Malawaraarachchi, J O’Toole, M Sinclair, K Leder. Review of greywater use in Australia. Water Journal, July 2011: 97-102.

P Gautret, P Lim, M Shaw, K Leder. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in travelers returning from Bali, Indonesia, November 2008-December 2009. CMI, 2011;17(3):445-7

S. Rodrigo, M. Sinclair, R. Wolfe, K. Leder Risk factors for gastroenteritis: A nested case-control study. Epi and Infect, 2011;139(4):552-9.

S Rodrigo, M Sinclair, A Forbes, D Cunliffe, K Leder. Drinking Rainwater: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Study of Water Treatment Filters and Gastroenteritis Incidence.  Am J Pub Health, 2011, 101(5): 842-847.


Leggat P, Leder K. Reducing the impact of influenza amongst travelers. J Trav Med, 2010;17(6):363-6.

M I Sinclair, J O’Toole, A Forbes, D Carr, K Leder. Health Status of Residents of Urban Dual Reticulation Systems. Int J Epidemiology,  2010;39(6):1667-75.

Talbot EA, Chen LH, Sanford C, McCarthy A, Leder K. Travel Medicine Research Priorities: Establishing an Evidence Base. J Trav Med, 2010;17(6):410-5.

K Dale, M Kirk, M Sinclair, R Hall, K Leder. Reported waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease in Australia are predominantly associated with recreational exposure. Aust NZ J Pub Health, 2010; 34:527-30.

O’Toole J, Sinclair M, Leder K. Quantitative microbial risk assessment and Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling: two case studies. Food Australia, 2010, 62(Sep):408.

A J Stewardson, K Leder, Joseph Torresi, D Johnson. Two cases of Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Australian travelers visiting Morocco. J Trav Med, 2010: 17;278–280.

D M Urquhart, F S Hanna, S L Brennan, A E Wluka, K Leder, P Cameron, S Graves, F M Cicuttini. Incidence and Risk Factors for Deep Surgical Site Infection Following Primary Total Hip Replacement: A Systematic Review. Journal of Arthroplasty, 2010 25(8):1216-22.

P Jones, I Woolley, K Leder, P Cameron, A Cheng, D Spelman. The care of asplenic and hyposplenic patient: Best practice guidelines. Australian Family Physician, 2010;39(6):383-6.

S Hagmann, N Reddy, R Neugebauer, M Purswani, K Leder. Identification of Future Travelers Visiting Friends and Relatives Abroad by Assessing Intention to Travel among Immigrant Families. J Trav Med, 2010;17(3):193-6.

Rodrigo S, Sinclair M, Leder K. A survey of the characteristics and maintenance of rainwater tanks in urban areas of South Australia.Water Science & Technology, 2010;61(6):1569-77.

MK Yong, CL Beckett, J Black, J Torresi, B ABiggs, K Leder, DP O'Brien. A longitudinal observational follow up study of Schistosomiasis serology in Australian travellers and immigrants. J Trav Med, 2010;17(2):89-93.

P Schlagenhauf., LH Chen., ME Wilson, DO Freedman, D Tcheng, ESchwartz, P Pandey, R Weber, D Nadal., C Berger, F von Sonnenburg, J Keystone, K Leder, for the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Gender and Travel-Associated Illness. Clin Infect Dis, 2010;50(6): 826-832.


K Dale, R Wolfe, MI Sinclair, ME Hellard, K Leder. Sporadic gastroenteritis and recreational swimming in a longitudinal community cohort study in Melbourne, Australia. Am J Epidemiology, 2009;170(2):1469-1477.

P Jones, K Leder, IJ Woolley, P Cameron, D Spelman. Patient knowledge of the risks of post splenectomy sepsis. ANZ J Surg, 2009; 79(11);854-856.

O’Toole J, Sinclair M, Keywood M, Leder K. Risk in the Mist? – Deriving data to quantify microbial health risks associated with aerosol generation by water-efficient devices during typical domestic water-using activities. Water Science and Technology, 2009;60(11):2913-20.

J Torresi, K Leder. Defining the Spectrum of Infections in International Travellers through the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Nature Rev (Microbiology), 2009, 7(12): 895-901.

O’Toole J, Sinclair M, Leder K. Collecting household water usage data: telephone questionnaire or diary? BMC Medical Research Methodology, 9 (72), 2009.

N Chaves, K B. Gibney, K Leder, D O’Brien, C Marshall, BA Biggs. Adequacy of screening practices and burden of disease among Myanmar refugees referred to the infectious diseases unit of a tertiary referral hospital  in Melbourne, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis, 2009, 15 (11):1769-72.

M Jensenius, X Davis, F von Sonnenburg, E Schwartz, J S. Keystone, K Leder, R Lopéz-Véléz, E Caumes, J P Cramer, L Chen, and P Parola for the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. A multicenter GeoSentinel.analysis of rickettsial diseases in international travelers, 1996-2008, Emerg Infect Dis, 2009, 15 (11):1769-72:1791-8.

HL. Kelsall, DP. McKenzie, MR. Sim, K Leder, AB. Forbes, T Dwyer. Physical, psychological and functional comorbidities of multisymptom illness in Australian male veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Am J Epidemiology, 2009, 170 (8):1048-1056.

O’Toole, J., Sinclair, M., Jeavons T., Leder, K. Influence of Sample Preservation on Endotoxin Measurement in Water. Water Science and Technology, 2009, 60(6):1615-9.

Rodrigo S, Sinclair M, Leder K. Effectiveness and cost of recruitment strategies for a community-based randomised controlled trial among rainwater drinkers. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2009;9:51.

K Leder, M Sinclair, D Wain. Household clustering of gastroenteritis. Epidemiol Infect, 2009;1:1-8.

K Gibney, S Mihrshai, J Torresi, CMarshall, K Leder, BA Biggs. The profile of health problems in African Immigrants attending an Infectious Disease Unit in Melbourne, Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2009; 80(5):805-811.

O’Toole, J., Sinclair, M. and Leder K. Using bacteriophages in recycled water exposure assessment studies. Food and Environmental Virology, 2009;1(1):23-30.

O’Toole, J., Rodrigo, S., Sinclair, M. and Leder, K. The Australian Electoral Commission Role has good utility for ‘niche’ household recruitment in exposure assessment studies. Australian New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 2009; 33(2):137-139.

Leder K, O'Toole JE, Sinclair MI. Water recycling -- forwards or backwards for public health? Med J Aust. 2009;190(6):293-4.

O'Toole J, Sinclair M, Leder K. Transfer rates of enteric micro-organisms in recycled water during machine clothes washing.Appl Environ Microbiol, 2009;75(5):1256-63.

K Leder. Travelers as a Sentinel Population: Use of Sentinel Networks to Inform Pretravel and Posttravel Evaluation. Curr Inf Dis Rep, 2009; 11(1):51-8.


J O’Toole, M Sinclair, K Leder. Recycled water exposure: Filling the data gaps. Water, 2008; Dec: 66-71.

O’Toole, J., Sinclair, M. and Leder K. Maximising Response Rates in Household surveys. BMC Medical Research Methodolgy, 2008;8(1):71.

H Kelsall, DMcKenzie, M Sim, K Leder, J Ross, A Forbes, J Ikin. Comparison of self-reported and recorded vaccinations and health effects in Australian Gulf War veterans. Vaccine. 2008;26(33):4290-7.

K Leder, ME Wilson, DO Freedman and J Torresi. A comparative analysis of methodological approaches used for estimating risk in travel medicine. J Trav Medicine 2008;15(4):263-72.

J. O’Toole M. Sinclair and C. Diaper, K. Leder. Comparative survival of enteric indicators, E.coli and somatic and F-RNA bacteriophages on turf-grass irrigated with recycled water. Water Sci Technol. 2008;58(3):513-518.

J. O’Toole, M. Sinclair and T. Jeavons, K. Leder. Alternative water sources and endotoxin. Water Sci Technol. 2008;58(3):609-613.

Z Greenwood, J Black, LWeld, D O’Brien, K Leder, F Von Sonnenberg, P Pandey, E Schwartz, BA Connor, DO Freedman, G Brown, J Torresi,  for the GeoSentinel Surveillance Group. Regional relative risks of gastrointestinal infection among international travelers – a global perspective. J Travel Med. 2008;15(4):221-8.

Wilder-Smith A, Leder K, Tambyah PA. Importation of poliomyelitis to polio free countries via travelers: a test case for the revised international health regulations? EID, 2008, 14(2).

Gibney KB, MacGregor L, Leder K, Torresi J, Marshall C, Ebeling PR, Biggs BA. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection among immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Infect Dis, 2008, 46(3):443-6.


Friedman ND, Bull AL, Russo PL, Leder K, Reid C, Billah B, Marasco S,, McBryde E, Richards MJ. An Alternative Scoring System to Predict Risk for Surgical Site Infection Complicating Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2007; 28(10):1162-8.

Mons MN, van der Wielen JML, Blokker EJM, Sinclair MI, Hulshof KFAM, Dangendorf F, Hunter PR and Medema, G.J. Estimation of the consumption of cold tap water for microbiological risk assessment: an overview of studies and statistical analysis of data. Journal of Water & Health 2007; 5(Suppl 1): s151-70.

O’Toole J, Leder K and Sinclair M. Recycled water and human health effects. Australian Family Physician 2007; 36 (12) 998-1000.

Robinson PJ, Billah B, Leder K, Dinh D , Shardey GC, Skillington PD, Smith JA, Reid CM– on behalf of the ASCTS Database Committee. Factors associated with Deep Sternal Wound Infection and Haemorrhage following Cardiac Surgery in Australia. Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery  2007;6(2):167-71

Rizak S and Hrudey SE.(2007) Strategic water quality monitoring for drinking water safety. Water 34(4) 67-71.

Sinclair MI and Schlösser O (2007) Water softening: epidemiological evidence on calcium and magnesium in drinking water and cardiovascular disease. Water21 - Magazine of the International Water Association, February, p18-19.


Leder K, Tong S, Weld L, Kain KC, Wilder-Smith A, Black J, von Sonnenburg F, Brown GV, Torresi J. Illness in Travelers Visiting Friends and Relatives: A Review of the GeoSentinel Network. Clin Infect Dis, Nov 2006: 43(9):1185-93.

Kelsall H, Sim M, McKenzie D, Forbes A, Leder K, Glass D, Ikin J, McFarlane A. Kelsall H, Sim M, McKenzie D, Forbes A, Leder K, Glass D, Ikin J, McFarlane A. Medically evaluated psychological and physical health of Australian Gulf War veterans with chronic fatigue. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2006; 60:575-584.

Smith E, Coghlan B, Leder K. Avian Influenza: Clinical and Epidemiological Information for Paramedics and Emergency Healthcare Workers. JEPHC, 2006; 4 (1).

Ferguson C, Deere D, Sinclair M, Chalmers RM, Elwin K, Hadfield S, Xiao L, Ryan U, Gasser R, El-Osta YA, and Stevens M. (2006). Meeting Report: Application of Genotyping Methods to Assess Risks from Cryptosporidium in Watersheds. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(3) 430-434.

O’Brien DP, Leder K, Matchett E, Brown GV, Torresi J. (2006) Illness in returned travellers and immigrants/refugees: the 6 year experience of two Australian infectious diseases units. J Trav Med 13(3):145-52.

Rizak, S. N. and S. E. Hrudey. (2006) Misinterpretation of drinking water quality monitoring data with implications for risk management. Environmental Science & Technology. 40(17), 5244-5250.


Chalmers RM, Ferguson C, Cacciò, Gasser RB, El-Osta YGA, Xiao L, Elwin K, Hadfield S, Sinclair M and Stevens M. (2005) Direct comparison of selected methods for genetic categorisation of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis species. International Journal for Parasitology 35(4) 397-410.

Ferguson C, Deere D, Sinclair M, Chalmers RM, Elwin K, Hadfield S, Xiao L, Ryan U, Gasser R, El-Osta YA, and Stevens M. (2005). Meeting Report: Application of Genotyping Methods to Assess Risks from Cryptosporidium in Watersheds. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(3) 430-434 [Published online 26 October 2005]

Freedman DO and Leder K. (2005) Influenza: Changing Approaches to Prevention and Treatment in Travelers. J Trav Med,12 (1):36-44.

Frost FJ, Tollestrup K, Craun GF, Fairley CK, Sinclair MI and Kunde TR. Protective immunity associated with a strong serological response to a Cryptosporidium-specific antigen group, in HIV-infected individuals. (2005) Journal of Infectious Diseases 192 618-821.

Jalba D., Rizak S., Hrudey S.E. (2005). Interpretation of drinking water monitoring data for environmental health professionals. Environmental Health Journal 5 (3): 40-49.

Leder K and Newman D. (2005) Respiratory infections during air travel. Internal Medicine Journal,35 (1):50-5.

Leder K, Hellard ME, Sinclair MI, Fairley CK, and Wolfe R. (2005) No evidence for pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis in healthy individuals.  Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.20 (9):1390-4 [Published on-line 7 June 2005].

Rizak S, Hrudey SE. (2005). Interdisciplinary comparison of expert risk beliefs. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science. 4 (3): 173-185.

Schindler AR, El-Osta YGA, Stevens M, Sinclair MI, and Gasser RB. (2005).Capillary electrophoretic analysis of fragment length polymorphism in ribosomal markers of Cryptosporidium from humans.  Molecular and Cellular Probes 19 394-399.

Sinclair MI, Hellard ME, Wolfe R, Mitakakis TZ, Leder K, and Fairley CK. (2005) Pathogens causing community gastroenteritis in Australia.  Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 20(11) 1685-1690 (Published on-line 12 October 2005).


Elliott J, O'Brien D, Leder K, Kitchener S and Schwartz E et al (2004). Imported plasmodium vivax malaria: Demographic and clinical features in nonimmune travelers." J Travel Medicine 11 (4): 213-222.

Hrudey SE, Rizak S. 2004. Discussion of: Rapid Analytical Techniques for Drinking Water Security Investigations. Journal of American Water Works Association 96(9):110-113.

Leder K, Black J, O'Brien D, Greenwood Z and Kain KC et al (2004). Malaria in travellers: A review of the GeoSentinal Surveillance Network. Clin Infect Diseases 39: 1104-1112.

Leder K (2004). Parasitic diseases: nervous system effects. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Adelman G and Smith BH, Elsevier Science.

McNeil J J, Robman L, Tikellis G, Sinclair M I, McCarty C A and Taylor H R (2004). Vitamin E Supplementation and Cataract. Randomised controlled trial. Ophthamology 2004 111: 75-94.

Marshall J, Hellard M, Sinclair M, Fairley C K and Cox B (2004). Failure to detect norovirus in a large group of asymptomatic individuals. Public Health 118: 230-233.

Mitakakis T Z, Sinclair M I and Leder K (2004). Alternative water sources and reuse: what are the public health issues? Medical Journal of Australia, 180: 260-261.

Mitakakis T Z, Wolfe R, Sinclair M I, Fairley C K, Leder K and Hellard M E (2004). Dietary intake and domestic food preparation and handling as risk factors for gastroenteritis: a case-control study, Epidemiology and Infection 132 (4): 601-606.

Mitakakis TZ, Sinclair MI, Fairley CK, Lightbody PK, Leder K and Hellard ME (2004). Food safety in family homes in Melbourne, Australia. J Food Protection 67 (4): 818-822.

Mitakakis TZ, Wolfe R, Sinclair MI, Fairley CK, Leder K and Hellard ME (2004). Dietary intake and domestic food preparation and handling as risk factors for gastroenteritis: a case-control study. Epidemiology and Infection 132 (4): 601-606.

Robins-Browne, R. M., A. M. Bordun, M. Tauschek, V. R. Bennett-Wood, J. Russell, F. Poppedisano, N. A. Lister, K. A. Bettelheim, C. K. Fairley, M. I. Sinclair and M. E. Hellard (2004). Escherichia coli and community-acquired gastroenteritis, Melbourne, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10 (10): 1797-1805.

Sinclair, M. and S. Rizak (2004). Drinking-water quality management: The Australian Framework. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 67: 1567-1579.

Yung A, Ruff T, Torresi J, Leder K and O'Brian D (2004). Manual of travel medicine: A pre-travel guide for health care practitioners. Melbourne, IP Communications.

Yung A, Ruff T, Torresi J, Leder K and O. B. D (2004). Manual of travel medicine: A pre-travel guide for health care practitioners. Melbourne, IP Communications.


Black J, Fairley CK. Early detection of water-related disease outbreaks. In Drinking Water and Infectious Disease. Establishing the Links. Hunter PR, Waite M, Ronchi E (Eds). CRC Press, 2003:67-77.

Hellard ME, Sinclair MI, Harris AH, Kirk, M and Fairley CK (2003) The Cost of Community Gastroenteritis. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 18, 322-328.

Leder K, Sundararajan V, Weld L, Pandey P, Brown G, Torresi J (2003). Respiratory tract infections in travelers: A review of the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Clin Inf Dis 36:399-406.

Marshall JA, Hellard ME, Sinclair MI, Fairley CK, Cox BJ, Catton MG, Kelly H and Wright PJ. (2003) The incidence and characteristics of endemic Norwalk-like virus-associated gastroenteritis. Journal of Medical Virology 69 (4), 568-578.

Rizak S, Cunliffe D, Sinclair M, Vulcano R, Howard J, Hrudey S, Callan P. (2003). Drinking water quality management: A holistic approach.  Water Science and Technology  47 ( 9), pp31-36.

Robertson B, Fairley CK, Black J, Sinclair M. Case-control studies. In Drinking Water and Infectious Disease. Establishing the Links. Hunter PR, Waite M, Ronchi E (Eds). CRC Press, 2003:175-182.

Leder K, Weller PF. Antiparasitic agents (2003). Manual of Clinical Microbiology (8th Ed). ASM Press, Washington DC, USA.

Leder k, M Sinclair, T Z Mitakakis, M Hellard, A Forbes, C Fairley (2002). A Community-Based Study of Respiratory Events in Melbourne. A NZ J Public Health 27 (4): 399-404.


Fisman DN, Agrawal D, Leder K. The effect of age on immunologic response to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35 (11):1368-75.

Froese K L, Sinclair M and Hrudey S E. (2002) Trichloroacetic Acid as a Biomarker of Exposure to Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: A Human Exposure Trial in Adelaide, Australia. Environ Health Perspect 110 (7):679-87.

Krewski D, Balbus J, Butler-Jones D, Haas C, Isaac-Renton J, Roberts K and Sinclair M. (2002) Managing health risks from drinking water--a report to the Walkerton inquiry. Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health Part A. 65 (21):1635-823, 2002 (Nov 8).

Leder K. HIV-infected travellers: What precautions should they take? J Respir Dis 2002;23 (4):259-269.

Leder K. HIV-infected travellers: What should they avoid? J Respir Dis 2002;23 (6):344-351.

Leder K, Weller PF. Selected parasitic infections. Saunders Manual of Pediatric Practice 2nd Ed. WB Saunders Co, Elsevier Science, Philadelphia USA 2002.

Leder K, Sinclair MI, McNeil JJ. Water and the environment: a natural resource or a limited luxury? MJA 2002:177:609-613.

Robertson B, Sinclair M I, Forbes A B, Veitch M, Kirk M, Cunliffe D, Willis J and Fairley C K. (2002) Case-control studies of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia. Epidemiol Infect 128 (3):419-31

Sinclair M I, Hellard M E, Forbes A and Fairley C K. (2002) Assessing microbial risks from drinking water: the Water Quality Study. Vic Infect Dis Bull 5(1):1-3.

Sinclair M I. (2002) Assessing Microbial Risks from Drinking Water: Two Studies. Water: Journal of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association. 29 (1):30-2.


McConnell S, Horrocks M, Sinclair MI and Fairley CK. (2001) Changes in the incidence of gastroenteritis and the implementation of public water treatment. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 11 (4): 299-303.

Hellard ME, Sinclair MI, Forbes AB and Fairley CK. (2001) A randomized blinded controlled trial investigating the gastrointestinal health effects of drinking water quality. Environmental Health Perspectives 109 (8): 773-8.

Robertson B, Sinclair M I, Willis J, Forbes A, Fairley C K, Veitch M, Kirk M and Cunliffe D. (2001) Case-control studies of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia. Vic Infect Dis Bull 4 (4):49-51.

Stuart RL. Bennett NJ. Forbes AB. Grayson ML. (2001) Assessing the risk of tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers: the Melbourne Mantoux Study. Melbourne Mantoux Study Group. Medical Journal of Australia. 174 (11):569-73.

Hellard ME, Sinclair MI, Forbes A and Fairley CK. (2001) Methods used to maintain a high level of participation in a clinical trial. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 5:348-351.


Robertson B, Forbes A, Sinclair M, Black J, Veitch M, Pilotto L, Kirk M, Fairley CK. (2000) How well does a telephone questionnaire measure drinking water intake? Aust NZ J Public Health 24:619-22.

Robertson B, Sinclair M, Forbes A, Kirk M, Fairley CK. (2000) The effect of an introductory letter on participation rates using telephone recruitment. Aust NZ J Public Health 24:552.

Sinclair MI, Savige GS, Dalais FS, Wahlqvist ML. (2000) Risk science and communication issues and challenges for food: an Australian perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 9 (4):318-321.

Demos L, Kazda H, Cicuttini FM, Sinclair MI, and Fairley CK. (2000) Water fluoridation, osteoporosis, fractures - Recent developments. Australian Dental Journal 46 (2):80-87.

Padiglione AA, Grabsch EA, Olden D, Hellard M, Sinclair MI, Fairley CK and Grayson ML.(2000) Fecal Colonisation with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 6( 5) 534-536.

Sinclair, MI  and Fairley CK. (2000) Drinking water and gastrointestinal illness. (Letter) Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 54: 728.

Hellard ME, Sinclair MI, Black J, Dharmage SC, Andrews RM, Kirk MD,and Fairley CK. (2000) An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in an urban swimming pool: why are such outbreaks difficult to detect? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 24 (3) 272-275.

Sinclair MI. (2000) Disinfection Byproducts and Reproductive Effects: where to from here? Water (Journal of the Australian Water Association) 27 (1)16-17.

Hellard ME. (2000) Community gastroenteritis: a primary care approach. Practical Therapeutics (February) 55-59

Hellard ME, Sinclair MI, Hogg GG and Fairley CK. (2000) Prevalence of enteric pathogens among community based asymptomatic individuals. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 15 (3) 290-293.