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Two strategies to obtain functional cell–NW interfacing; a) Using NWs to penetrate the cell from bottom (F-B), and b) Using NWs to penetrate the cell from top (F-T).

Two strategies to obtain functional cell–NW interfacing; a) Using NWs to penetrate the cell from bottom (F-B), and b) Using NWs to penetrate the cell from top (F-T).

Human cells interfaced with VA-SiNW arrays.

Human cells interfaced with VA-SiNW arrays.