A guide to referencing styles
What is a 'referencing' style?
Referencing styles are established systems of referencing with consistent rules. Referencing style requirements cover the two elements of a referencing system:
a. in-text citations such as author-date citations or footnotes
b. reference lists or bibliographies.
What do I need to know about referencing styles?
There is a wide range of referencing styles, each with different origins and features. Some disciplines have developed their own style. For example, the American Psychological Association (APA style) was developed specifically for Psychology. Some disciplines have adopted a particular referencing style, while other disciplines may use a range of referencing styles. It is up to students to familiarise themselves with the referencing style requirements for each subject.
Consistency is most important. Do not mix referencing styles within one piece of writing.
Which referencing style should I use?
To find out which style to use:
- check your assignment instructions or Unit Guide
- ask your lecturer
- consult your faculty handbook and/or style guide (such as the Q Manual for BusEco)
- look at samples of work from your department
- look at the table on the next page for general guidance.
How do I find out more about referencing styles?
There is a wide range of resources available on referencing styles. However, you should consult the Monash University Library website, which contains tutorials on referencing styles with examples. Access these at http://monash.edu.au/library/skills/resources/tutorials/
What if I still have problems?
If you still have problems with referencing styles, consult:
- faculty staff
- Library staff: learning skills advisers and librarians
- style manuals and writing guides
A quick guide to referencing styles
American Chemical Society
American Institute of Physics
Author and date in text
American Psychological Association
Psychology, Education, Anthropology, and other Social and Behavioural Sciences
Author-date and/or note system
University of Chicago Press
Humanities, Social, Biological and Physical Sciences
Author and date in text
Natural Sciences, Social Sciences and Education, Business
Institute for Electronics & Electrical Engineers
Electronics, Electrical Engineering
Author and page number in text
Modern Languages Association of America
Humanities: Modern Languages, Literature, and other fields
Oxford or footnoting system
Number in text, details in notes for each entry
Arts, History, English, Literature
Number in text for each source
Developed at a meeting in Vancouver, 1988.
Online tutorials and guides are available at: monash.edu.au/library/skills/resources/tutorials/