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One would expect that in 20 years of 1325 UNSCR there has been significant change in women’s participation in peace and security. However, whether such change has been effective can be examined from two aspects: developing a Plan of Action in a national and provincial level, and implementation of the Plan of Action.
The 20 years of implementation of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda, aside from the issue of women peace and security, brings more awareness among civil society and local government. That there is more awareness on these issues among government and civil society, I feel that civil society organisation has changed in the way we integrate the issues and the way we advocate the issues.
When I reflect on ‘the participation story’ over the past two decades of the UN’s Women’s Peace and Security agenda, I find it is a difficult one to tell. It is impossible to offer a firm or linear account of efforts to ensure women’s meaningful participation in all areas of peace and security decision-making.
I think what has changed in civil society is that civil society organisations are being recognised as a legitimate actor in the security space – as having a significant perspective on what constitutes sustainable security.
The German National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security (WPS) almost exclusively refers to foreign policy instruments, while domestic challenges or policies are merely mentioned, which leads to neglecting gender inequalities, and racist motivated violence in Germany and also risks reproducing postcolonial hierarchies in the international community.