Reference papers


WHO concept of Handicap


AQoL- 8D takes about 5 minutes to complete


  • 8 separately scored dimensions, consisting of AQoL-6D and 2 additional dimensions, totalling 35 items
  • Items were developed from other mental health scales and focus groups
  • A simple global ‘utility’ score

Dimensions from AQoL-6D

  • Independent Living - household tasks, mobility outside the home, walking and self-care;
  • Relationships - friendships, family role and community role;
  • Mental Health - feelings of despair, worry, sadness, tranquility/agitation;
  • Coping - having enough energy, being in control and coping with problems;
  • Pain - the frequency of pain, the degree of pain and the interference with usual activities caused by pain;
  • Senses - seeing, hearing and communication.

New 8D Dimensions and/or New Items added to the 6D Dimensions

  • Relationships - enjoying relationships with family and friends, satisfaction with close relationships with family and friends, social isolation and social exclusion;
  • Mental Health - feelings of depression, trouble sleeping, feelings of anger, self-harm;
  • Self-Worth - feeling like a burden, worthlessness and confidence;
  • Happiness - contentment, enthusiam, degree of feeling happiness and pleasure.

Super-dimension components

  • Physical - independent living, senses, pain
  • Psychosocial - mental health, relationships, coping, self-worth, happiness


Descriptive System:

  • Exploratory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling of item responses from a representative sample of members of the public (n=200) and mental health patients at various Melbourne mental health centres (n=470)

Scaling System:

  • TTO scores were obtained from 300 patients and 300 members of the public
  • Multiplicative stage 1 dimension models were constructed
  • Econometric “correctional” stage 2 dimension models were constructed
  • A multiplicative global model combined the 8 dimensions
  • An econometric ‘corrected’ stage 2 model was constructed