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Phase of cell cycle designating cells that are quiescent and have not yet entered the growth cycle. Normal cells in this phase have exactly one set of chromosome pairs.
G1 (G1 phase)
The first growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins. In this phase of the cell cycle, cells are committed to division.
G2 (G2 phase)
The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs. In this phase of the cell cycle, proliferating cells have duplicated their DNA and formed two sets of chromosome pairs, in preparation for division. G2 follows the S phase and precedes the M (mitosis) phase.
1. A response to tactile input presented to the back of the tongue or pharyngeal area composed of jaw extension, forward / downward tongue movement, and pharyngeal constriction with eye widening and head and neck extension; very strong at birth, reducing in strength by about 7 months of age; persists throughout adulthood.
the height of the water surface above the gage datum (zero point). Gage height is often used interchangeably with the more general term, stage, although gage height is more appropriate when used with a gage reading.
a site on a stream, lake, reservoir or other body of water where observations and hydrologic data are obtained. The U.S. Geological Survey measures stream discharge at gaging stations.
Gain (of an amplifier)
The amount by which an amplifier boosts a signal.
Amplifier that works without increasing or decreasing the ratio of output current, voltage, or power to input current, voltage, or power.
A particular pattern or style in which a person walks.
Instruction in walking, with or without equipment; also called "ambulation training."
A neuropeptide neurotransmitter whose receptors are found in brain areas responsible for feeding, as well as for learning and memory. A small molecule drug which blocks the effects of galanin might be useful in reducing the body's appetite for fatty food, as well as modulating acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter implicated in Alzheimer's disease.
Leaking of milk from the breast that can occur in both males and females who are not breastfeeding.
Monosaccharide occurring in both levo (L) and dextro (D) forms as a constituent of plant and animal oligosaccharides (lactose and raffinose) and polysaccharides (agar and pectin). Galactose is the sugar derived from digesting lactose.
A metabolic disorder where an infant has difficulty processing lactose (or galactose, a sugar found in milk). High levels of galactose build up in the blood and tissues, causing liver and kidney disease, blindness, and mental retardation. Galactosemia is a genetic disease for which both parents must be carriers, and at the present time is unpreventable.
Stones that form when substances in the bile harden: There are two types of gallstones - cholesterol stones and pigment stones.
Mature male or female reproductive cell (sperm or ovum) with a haploid set of chromosomes (23 for humans). Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations; The haploid stage in the life cycle of an organism undergoing alternations of generations; The phase of the life cycle of sexually reproducing plants and algae in which the gametes (egg and sperm) are produced. The gametophyte arises from the germination of a haploid spore. The gametophyte is multicellular and mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation. In plants, the gametophyte nourishes the zygote and young sporophyte
Gamma radiation is a type of high energy electromagnetic radiation which is emitted during the disintegration of certain radioactive isotopes such as 125I and 57Co, which are used as tracers in immunoassays. Gamma emitting samples are measured in solid crystal scintillation counters. These solid crystals, are usually thallium activated sodium iodide and are different sizes to accommodate lower and higher energy radioisotopes.
A tonic contraction of one muscle or a group of synergistic muscles at a joint caused by excitation of the gamma motoneurons innervating the muscles
Ganglia (singular = ganglion)
Clusters of neurons or nerve cell bodies.
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.
In the cell cycle, the phases that precede (G1) and follow (G2) the synthesis (S) phase in which DNA is replicated. In the G1 phase, the cell doubles in size, and its enzymes, ribosomes, and other cytoplasmic molecules and structures increase in number; in the G2 phase, the replicated chromosomes begin to condense and the structures required for mitosis or meiosis are assembled.
Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS)
A method that combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography (see Chromatography) and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. (see Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry).
Pertaining to the stomach.
The folds and grooves into which the stomach lining is arranged.
A hormone produced by the pyloric gland area of the stomach that stimulates the secretion of gastric acids.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
The return flow of stomach contents into the esophagus and, sometimes, into the pharynx, often due to incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter
Gastroesophageal Reflux scan
A nuclear medicine study to identify if Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is present. Generally conducted over a two-hour period. The child is given a typical-sized feeding which contains a specifically calculated amount of radioisotope. Scanning is conducted for the first hour and during the last half hour. Information processed by the computer and interpreted by the radiologist includes that pertaining to the existence of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration as well as the calculation of gastric emptying time.
A ring of muscle at the junction of the oesophagus and the stomach. A sphincter is a ring of muscle that regulates the movement of substances between two spaces or chambers. The gastroesophageal sphincter regulates the reflux of substances from the stomach to the oesophagus, remaining closed except during swallowing to prevent the stomach contents from entering the oesophagus
A semi-permanent tube placed into the stomach for feeding purposes. It is used to introduce liquids, food, or medication into the stomach when the patient is unable to take these substances by mouth. The tubes are inserted surgically and require hospitalization.
The central digestive compartment, usually with a single opening that functions as both mouth and anus.
The two-layered, cup-shaped embryonic stage
The formation of a gastrula from a blastula; The process in which cells proliferate and migrate within the embryo to transform the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage into an embryo containing all three primary germ layers.
A boundary that defines a subset or sub-population of events. Gates are set by drawing boundaries around the subsets on data plots (dot plots or histograms).Gates are used in either data acquisition or analysis. Inclusive gates select only the events that fall within (and on) the boundary. Exclusive gates select only the events that fall outside of the boundary.
Gate control theory
The hypothesis put forward by Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall in the mid 1960s that postulated that the passage of pain (nociceptive) information across the dorsal horn of the spinal cord could be inhibited (“gated”) by inputs from large nerve fibres.
Gated ion channel
A transmembrane protein with a central water-filled pore that allows certain ions to pass through from one side of the membrane to the other, and whose opening or closing is controlled (gated). The three mechanisms that gate ion channels are: (a) binding of a specific chemical to a gating site or release of a chemical from a gating site, (b) changes in the transmembrane voltage, or (c) pressure or stress on the membrane.
A collection of gates that limits data acquisition or analysis. Each parameter can only be used once in a gate set.
1. The active transition of an ion channel from an open to a closed state or from a closed state to an open state.
Particles that mediate the transfer of energy between other particles: protons, gravitons, W and Z particles.
A gaussian, or normal, distribution is a symmetrical frequency distribution having a precise mathematical formula relating the mean and standard deviation of the samples.
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel; A method to analyze the size of DNA (or RNA) fragments.
Gel shift assay (also called gel mobility shift assay (GMSA), band shift assay (BSA), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA))
A method by which one can determine whether a particular protein preparation contains factors which bind to a particular DNA fragment.
The fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity, consisting of an ordered sequence of nucleotides (of DNA) located on a specific locus on a chromosome.
The selective synthesis of DNA, which results in multiple copies of a single gene, thereby enhancing expression. The presence of multiple copies of a gene or segment of DNA; a mechanism by which protooncogenes are activated in malignant cells. A tumor cell amplifies, or copies, DNA segments as a result of cell signals or the effects of environmental insults.
The variant forms of each gene are termed alleles.
The production of multiple copies of a gene.
A group of closely linked genes that code for a series of enzymes for successive steps in a metabolic pathway. If the gene cluster is controlled by an operator the whole unit is called operon.
The process by which the encoded information of the genome is converted into cellular components, i.e., the process by which genes coded information is converted into the structures present and operating in the cell; to "express" a gene is to cause it to function. A gene which encodes a protein will, when expressed, be transcribed and translated to produce that protein. A gene which encodes an RNA rather than a protein (for example, a ribosomal RNA, rRNA, gene or a transfer RNA, tRNA, gene) will produce that RNA when expressed. The DNA-coding sequences of expressed genes include those that are transcribed into mRNA and then translated into proteins, and RNA that is transcribed from DNA, yet not translated into protein (i.e., transfer and ribosomal RNAs).
Gene expression markers
Refers to molecules (e.g., synthesized due to a specific gene's expression) or consequences (e.g., cell apoptosis due to a specific gene's expression) that can be measured-as-proof of gene's expression in gene expression analysis.
A group of closely related genes that make similar products.
(2) The loss or gain of alleles from a population due to the emigration or immigration of fertile individuals, or the transfer of gametes, between populations.
A linear map determining the relative position of genes along a chromosome or plasmid. Distances are established by linkage analysis and measured in linkage units.
The total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time
The biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene. The amount of gene product is used to measure how active a gene is; abnormal amounts can be correlated with disease- causing alleles.
The suppression of gene expression (e.g., of the gene for polygalacturonase which causes fruit to ripen, of the gene for P34 protein in soybeans, etc.) via a variety of methods (e.g., via RNA interference (RNAi), chemical genetics, effect of certain viruses, "zinc finger proteins", sense or antisense genes, etc.).
Generalized Procrustes Analysis
Multivariate statistical analysis method used to classify and analyse sensory data from consumers or descriptive panels.
The insertion of normal or genetically altered genes into cells through the use of recombinant DNA technology, to correct a genetic defect or a mutation.Gene therapy is usually done to replace defective genes as part of the treatment of genetic disorders.
The system of nucleotide triplets in DNA and RNA that carries genetic information; referred to as a code because it determines the amino acid sequence in the enzymes and other protein molecules synthesized by the organism; The sequence of nucleotides, coded in triplets (codons) along the mRNA, that determines the sequence of amino acids in protein synthesis.
Exchange of genetic traits between populations by movement of individuals, gametes or spores.
A measure of the genetic similarity between any pair of populations. Such distance may be based on phenotypic traits, allele frequencies or DNA sequences.
The collection of the data on phenotypic traits, marker allele frequencies or DNA sequences for two or more populations, and estimation of the genetic distances between each pair of populations. From these distances, the best representation of the relationships among all the populations may be obtained.
Changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance. Variation in the genetic composition of individuals within or among species; the heritable genetic variation within and among populations.
Discipline that deals with transferring DNA sequences from one organism to another.
Random gene frequency changes in a small population due to chance alone.
The absence of genetic exchange between populations or species as a result of geographic separation or of premating or postmating mechanisms (behavioral, anatomical, or physiological) that prevent reproduction
An ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic markers) along a chromosome; Diagrams showing the order of and distance between genes. Genetic maps are constructed using crossover information.
Any genetically derived phenotypic difference used in the analysis of inheritance patterns or to differentiate between types of cells. An observable site on a chromosome that is heritable and can be either a genetically expressed region or noncoding segment of DNA (intron).
The modern biotechnology used to alter genetic material of living cells or organisms in order to make them capable of producing new substances or performing new functions. Genetic modification occurs at least through the use of the following techniques: (i) recombinant DNA techniques using vector systems; (ii) techniques involving the direct introduction into an organism of heritable material prepared outside the organism including micro-injection, macro-injection and micro-encapsulation; (iii) cell fusion (including protoplast fusion) or hybridization techniques where live cells with new combinations of heritable genetic material are formed through the fusion of two or more cells by means of methods that do not occur naturally.
Genetically modified organisms
Any organism in which the genetic material has been modified, using modern biotechnology, in a way that does not occur naturally, either through mating or natural recombination. The techniques which may be prescribed for such purposes include (a) any technique for the modification of any genes or other genetic material by recombination, insertion or deletion of, or of any component parts of, that material from its previously occurring state, and (b) any other technique for modifying genes or other genetic material which in the opinion of the Secretary of State would produce organisms which should be treated as having been genetically modified, but not include techniques which involve no more than, or no more than the assistance of, naturally occurring processes of reproduction (including selective breeding techniques or in vitro fertilization).
An alteration in the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule; often from one allelic form of a gene to another allele alternative.
The general term for the production of offspring that combine traits of the two parents.
A search in a population for persons possessing certain genotypes (genes transmitted from parents to offspring) that are (1) already associated with disease or predisposed to disease, (2) may lead to disease in their descendants, or (3) produce other variations not known to be associated with disease.
A sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes virus; results in sores on the mucus membranes of the mouth or genitals.
A visual representation of the life cycle of a family used as a means of understanding family relationships and changes.
The total complement of genetic material in a cell or person, found physically dispersed amongst the chromosomes. Since the genome is the full set of genes or genetic information of an organism, it includes both coding and non-coding sequences. See Proteome.
A type of Southern blot specifically used to analyze a mixture of DNA fragments derived from total genomic DNA. Because genomic DNA is very complicated, when it has been digested with restriction enzymes, it produces a complex set of fragments ranging from tens of bp to tens of thousands of bp. However, any specific gene will be reproducibly found on only one or a few specific fragments. A million identical cells will produce a million identical restriction fragments for any given gene, so probing a genomic Southern with a gene-specific probe will produce a pattern of perhaps one or just a few bands.
A piece of DNA taken from the genome of a cell or animal, and spliced into a bacteriophage or other cloning vector. A genomic clone may contain coding regions, exons, introns, 5' flanking regions, 5' untranslated regions, 3' flanking regions, 3' untranslated regions, or it may contain none of these...it may only contain intergenic DNA (usually not a desired outcome of a cloning experiment!).
The parental effect on gene expression. Identical alleles may have different effects on offspring, depending on whether they arrive in the zygote via the ovum or via the sperm.
A set of thousands of DNA segments from a genome, each carried by a plasmid, phage, or other cloning vector. A collection of clones made from a set of randomly generated overlapping DNA fragments representing the entire genome of an organism.
The study and understanding of genes and their implementation in the development of healthcare products and services.
The genetic (alleleic) makeup of an organism with regard to an observed trait. Genes transmitted from parents to offspring. The entire genetic constitution of an organism, or the genetic composition at a specific gene locus or set of loci
Genus (plural genera)
A grouping of one or several species that possess common characteristics. A classification above species and below family
The geometric mean of two numbers is the square root of the product of the numbers. The geometric mean of n numbers is the nth root of the product of the numbers.
A sequence of numbers of the form a, ar, ar2, ar3,....., arn-1.
The sum of a geometric sequence.
A bony projection on the anterolateral tibial plateau between the patellar tendon and fibular head that is used as a landmark for examining or operating on the knee.
Gametes or the cells that give rise to gametes
The three embryonic cell layers or germinal layers: the outer layer is the ectoderm, the middle layer is the mesoderm, and the innermost layer is the endoderm (entoderm).
Genetic material, especially its specific molecular and chemical constitution, that comprises the physical basis of the inherited qualities of an organism.
Period of time between fertilization and birth of an animal.
Ways of communicating by using natural gestures; behavior showing likes, dislikes, choices, and touch cues or tactile prompts.
a geothermal feature of the Earth where there is an opening in the surface that contains superheated water that periodically erupts in a shower of water and steam.
A disease that results from an infection by the protozoan parasite Giardia Intestinalis, caused by drinking water that is either not filtered or not chlorinated. The disorder is more prevalent in children than in adults and is characterized by abdominal discomfort, nausea, and alternating constipation and diarrhea. a disease that results from an infection by the protozoan parasite Giardia Intestinalis, caused by drinking water that is either not filtered or not chlorinated. The disorder is more prevalent in children than in adults and is characterized by abdominal discomfort, nausea, and alternating constipation and diarrhea.
Excessive proliferation of gum tissue.
a huge mass of ice, formed on land by the compaction and recrystallization of snow, that moves very slowly downslope or outward due to its own weight.
A structure composed of modified epithelial cells specialized to produce one or more secretions that are discharged to the outside of the gland.
Glasgow Coma Scale
A standardized system used to assess the degree of brain impairment and to identify the seriousness of injury in relation to outcome. The system involves three determinants: eye opening, verbal responses and motor response all of which are evaluated independently according to a numerical value that indicates the level of consciousness and degree of dysfunction. Scores run from a high of 15 to a low of 3. Persons are considered to have experienced a `mild' brain injury when their score is 13 to 15. A score of 9 to 12 is considered to reflect a `moderate' brain injury and a score of 8 or less reflects a 'severe' brain injury.
A disorder in the eye characterized by high pressure inside the eyeball. Glaucoma is characterized by the slow, progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells, resulting in the loss of axons that make up the optic disc (producing optic disc cupping) and a concomitant pattern of visual field loss. Although the mechanisms underlying retinal degeneration in glaucoma are complex, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) resulting in vascular insufficiency and HI (particularly at the optic nerve head) is considered a primary cause. Human risk factors for the development of glaucoma include chronic RGC hypoxia/ischemia (HI) due to elevated IOP and homocysteinaemia, which can be caused by a number of lifestyle, genetic or disease conditions. These factors can increase reactive oxidative and nitrosative stress (RONS) in the retina, leading to inhibition of methionine synthase. Methionine synthase is essential for the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine and the regeneration of tetrahydrofolate (which is required for DNA synthesis). This key perturbation in one carbon metabolism could result in methylation stress caused by decreased concentrations of SAMe and increased levels of the potent methyltransferase inhibitor, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). Deleterious downstream sequelae from methionine synthase inhibition include decreased creatine and glutathione synthesis in Müller cells, down-regulation of creatine transporter (CRT-1) activity and expression in RGCs, and escalation of RONS. Mitochondrial DNA damage caused by RONS would be exacerbated by a reduced capacity for DNA synthesis and repair, and may ultimately decrease the mitochondrial density in ganglion cells. A subsequent reduction in mitochondrial energy generation coupled with impaired energy buffering by creatine kinase in ganglion cells may be a primary cause of ganglion cell dysfunction and degeneration in glaucoma.
Glial cell (or Neuroglial cell)
A cell type of the nervous system. There are about 5 different types of glial cells and their primary role (as indicated by the fact that glial comes from the Latin for “glue”) is to create an ideal operating environment for neurons. These cells do not conduct information in the form of Action Potentials. Instead they create an ideal operating environment for neurons by carrying out different functions including providing support, insulation, and protection for the neurons (each function by a different type of glial cell).
The best possible solution to a problem.
Global Positioning System
A system used to determine latitude, longitude, and elevation anywhere on or above the Earth's surface. Location is obtained by simultaneously determining position relative to a number of specialized satellites using radio signals. Abbreviated to GPS
A polypeptide chain folded into a roughly spherical shape.
Glomerular filtration rate
The amount of plasma filtered by the kidney each minute
A tangle of capillaries that makes up part of the nephron. The glomerulus is the site of filtration of the plasma. It is made up of a ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serves as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney
A peptide hormone secreted by pancreatic endocrine cells that raises blood glucose levels. Acts antagonistically (in opposition) to insulin.
Synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources such as fats or proteins. This occurs when the glycogen supply in the liver is exhausted.
A corticosteroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that influences glucose metabolism and immune function.
Glucocorticoid Response Element (GRE)
A binding site in a promoter to which the activated glucocorticoid receptor can bind.
A six-carbon sugar (C6H12O6); the most common monosaccharide in animals.
Glycemic index (GI)
A measure of the rate at which glucose from different forms of carbohydrates enter the bloodstream (i.e., ranks foods on how they affect blood glucose levels in the two or three hours after eating.)Carbohydrates that break down rapidly during digestion releasing glucose rapidly into the bloodstream have a high GI and increase blood sugar rapidly. Carbohydrates that break down slowly, releasing glucose gradually into the bloodstream, have a low GI and produce a lower more constant insulin response; they tend to possess GI numbers under 60.
Syrupy type of alcohol derived from sugar which is used in food flavourings to maintain desired food consistency.
Colourless, odourless, syrupy liquid chemically, an alcohol, that is obtained from fats and oils and used to retain moisture and add sweetness to foods.
A fuzzy coat on the outside of animal cells, made of sticky oligosaccharides.
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide; the animal equivalent of starch. Like starch, this is a polysaccharide of glucose, but found in animals instead of plants. This is the form in which glucose is stored in muscles and in the liver.
Organic molecules similar in structure to fats, but in which a short carbohydrate chain rather than a fatty acid is attached to the third carbon of the glycerol molecule.
The cell’s metabolic process in which glucose is split into two pyruvate molecules.
A protein with covalently attached carbohydrate.
An increased concentration of glucose in the urine.
Enlargement of the thyroid gland which is located in the front of the neck, behind the trachea.
Goldman equation (or Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) equation or “constant field” equation)
An equation for calculating the electrical potential difference across a cell membrane.
where V = voltage difference, R = Universal gas constant, P = permeability coefficient of the ion, F = Faraday’s constant, Co = concentration on one side of the membrane, Ci = concentration on other side of the membrane, o = outside, I = inside..
Typical values for P are:
(see also Resting Membrane Potential, Nernst equation, and Equilibrium potential)
Eukaryotic cell organelle which packages cell products, such as enzymes and hormones, and coordinate their transport to the outside of the cell. An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum, for transport to other parts of the cell or export from the cell
Cells in the anterior pituitary that synthesize Lutenizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). The release of LH and FSH by the gonadotropes is controlled by Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH).
Hormones that stimulate the activities of the testes and ovaries; a collective term for the peptide hormones Lutenizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). These hormones are released by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary, and act on the gonads to stimulate them, thereby affecting reproduction
Gonadotropin release inhibiting hormone (GnIH)
A peptide hormone responsible for blocking the release of gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary. GnIH is synthesized and released by the hypothalamus.
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
A peptide hormone responsible for the release of gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary, affecting reproduction. GnRH is also known as Luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (LHRH). It is synthesized and released by the hypothalamus.
The male and female sex organs. The gamete-producing organs in most animals.
Tissue derived from the the fertilized nucleus of some red algae, equivalent to the carposporophyte. It may develop from the carpogonium or an auxiliary cell, and it ultimately produces carposporangia by mitosis
A sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by a bacterium that inflames and damages epithelial cells of the reproductive system
Condition characterized by abnormally elevated levels of uric acid in the blood, recurring attacks of joint inflammation (arthritis ), deposits of hard lumps of uric acid in and around the joints, and decreased kidney function and kidney stones.
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma-membrane signal receptor, known as a G-protein linked/coupled receptor, to other signal-transduction proteins inside the cell.When a G-protein linked/coupled receptor is activated, it in turn activates the G protein, causing it to bind a molecule of GTP in place of GDP. This causes the Gα subunit to separate from the Gβ/γ complex. 18 Gα subunits exist as 4 main families based on structural and functional homologies: Gαi, Gαs, Gαq, Gα12. Each family signals through one of 3 main effectors, adenylyl cyclase (AC, Gαi and Gαs), phospholipase Cβ (PLC, Gαq) and rho kinase (Gα12).
G-protein coupled receptors
A signal receptor protein in the plasma membrane that responds to the binding of a signal molecule by activating a G protein. These are seven transmembrane domain receptors that upon ligand binding interact with heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G-proteins).
A local voltage change in a neuron membrane induced by stimulation of a neuron, with strength proportional to the strength of the stimulus and lasting about a millisecond.
A view of Earth's history that attributes profound change to the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes.
A staining method that distinguishes between two different kinds of bacterial cell walls.
Gram-negative or Gram-positive
The classification given to bacteria according to their staining properties as defined by the Gram stain procedure.
Grand mal seizure / attacks
Epileptic seizures characterized by myoclonus, progressive myoclonus, loss of erect posture, and unconsciousness.
Solid inclusions in cells or items adhering to the surface of cells. Usually refractile, in that they may look bright when viewed with the microscope.
A tumor that occurs secondary to trauma such as that which may be caused by intubation. If a tube is forced through the glottis, the surrounding membranes of the vocal cords can become torn. The tissue can then become a large tumor which may cause aphonia, a voice disorder, and possible obstruction of breathing. These tumors must be surgically removed.
The graph of an equation is the set of points that make the equation true.
The most common form of hyperthyroidism. Occurs when the immune system attacks thyroid gland and causes it to overproduce the hormone thyroxine.
The number of times a woman has been pregnant.
The attractive central gravitational force exerted by a celestial body such as earth.
Unit that measures the radiation dose (Gy). International health and safety authorities have endorsed the safety of irradiation for all foods up to a dose level of 10,000 Gy (10 kGy). One gray equals one joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of food being irradiated.
The circle formed by the intersection of a plane passing through the center of a sphere
Greatest common factor
The greatest common factor of two numbers, a and b, is the largest number that divides both a and b evenly.
wastewater from clothes washing machines, showers, bathtubs, hand washing, lavatories and sinks.
1) water that flows or seeps downward and saturates soil or rock, supplying springs and wells. The upper surface of the saturate zone is called the water table. (2) Water stored underground in rock crevices and in the pores of geologic materials that make up the Earth's crust.
ground water confined
ground water under pressure significantly greater than atmospheric, with its upper limit the bottom of a bed with hydraulic conductivity distinctly lower than that of the material in which the confined water occurs.
ground water recharge
inflow of water to a ground-water reservoir from the surface. Infiltration of precipitation and its movement to the water table is one form of natural recharge. Also, the volume of water added by this process.
ground water unconfined
water in an aquifer that has a water table that is exposed to the atmosphere.
The action produced at a joint by a group of muscles working together.
Group translocation systems
A sequence of molecules used to move a molecule and transform it in the process.
A protein that must be present in the extracellular environment (culture medium or animal body) for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells.
Growth phase (of cells)
During the growth phase, cells grow exponentially and at a constant rate.
Guaiac Test (Hemoccult, Fecult)
A chemical test to identify blood in the stool (feces).
A purine nitrogenous base, one member of the base pair G- C (guanine and cytosine).
Substance made from the endosperm of seeds of the guar plant which acts as a stabilizer in food systems. Is found as a food additive in cheese, including processed cheese, ice cream and dressings. Provides products with high viscosities.
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)
A reversible condition that affects the nerves in the body. GBS can result in muscle weakness, pain, and even temporary paralysis of the facial, chest, and leg muscles. Paralysis of the chest muscles can lead to breathing problems.
The development of abnormally large mammary glands (breast tissue) in males resulting in breast enlargement.
When the cerebral cortex is highly folded and convuluted (due to gyri and sulci)
Gyrus (plural gyri)
The convolutions (creases) of the cortex of the brain.