J

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

p

q

r

s

t

u

v

w

x

y

z

#

Search for a word or term


Word / termDefinition

Jargon

Spoken language that has a normal rate and rhythm but is full of nonsense words

Jaundice

Literally means "yellow" in French. Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes from a backup of bile metabolic by-products from the blood into body tissues. May result from blockage of the ducts draining bile from the liver into the intestines or excessive breakdown of red blood cells. Hemoglobin from destroyed RBC' s is broken down, and in part, ends up in bile secretions

Jaw

The bones below the mouth (the mandible) and the bone above the mouth just above the mouth (the maxilla). The word jaw comes from the Anglo-Saxon ceowan meaning to chew.

Joint

A joint is the area where two bones are attached for the purpose of motion of body parts. A joint is usually formed of fibrous connective tissue and cartilage. An articulation or an arthrosis is the same as a joint.

Joining (J) segment

A small DNA segment that links genes to yield a functional gene encoding an immunogobulin.

Joint variation

varies jointly as and z if y = kxz.

Joule (J)

A unit of energy. 1 J = 0.239 cal; 1 cal = 4.184 J. The modern unit in physics for energy. Is used in place of calorie. 1 cal equals 4.184 J
]

Judet view

Oblique x-ray images of the hips at approximately 45 degree angles that allow visualization of the anterior and posterior columns of the acetabulum and in particular, the anterior and posterior walls of the acetabulum.

Jumping genes

Genes incorporated in a complex transposon that can move about on the chromosome. Complex transposons are much larger (>1500 base pairs long) and carry additional genes. Genes incorporated in a complex transposon are known as jumping genes since they can move about on the chromosome (even from chromosome to chromosome).

Junction (cell junctions)

A protein based structure that connects two adjacent cells. Junctions are used for contact formation and communication. Common junctions in animal systems are tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes and hemidesmosome (connects a cell to the extra-cellular matrix to form stable connective tissue).

Junctional diversity

Variability in immunoglobulins caused by differences in the exact crossover point during V-J, V-D, and D-J joining.

Junk DNA (also called non-coding DNA)

Stretches of DNA that do not code for genes.  Most of the genome consists of so-called junk DNA which may have regulatory and other functions.

Juvenile

Between infantile and adult as, for example, in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (onset before age 16 years) and juvenile diabetes ( type 1 diabetes ).

Juvenile hormone

A hormone in arthropods, secreted by the corpora allata glands, that promotes the retention of larval characteristics.

Juvenile papilloma

Wart-like growths, which may be viral in origin, can grow on the true vocal cords or elsewhere in the airway. The most common childhood disease of the larynx, and is also considered a voice disorder. The warts must be surgically removed if they interfere with breathing or voice production.

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

A childhood viral disease characterized by inflammation and swelling of joint structures.

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

Specialized tissue located near the afferent arteriole that supplies blood to the kidney glomerulus; the JGA raises blood pressure by producing renin, which activates angiotensin.