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|Word / term||Definition|
Oldest of the non-nutritive sweeteners.
A balloon-like outpouching of a vessel (the more common type of aneurysm).
A fluid in the mouth containing water (99.5 percent), digestive enzymes, lysozyme (an enzyme that kills bacteria), proteins, antibodies (IgA), and various ions. Saliva lubricates the mouth, moistens food during chewing, protects the mouth against pathogens, and begins the chemical digestion of food.
Chemical digestion is carried out by the digestive enzyme salivary amylase, which breaks down polysaccharides (starch and glycogen) into short chains of glucose, especially the disaccharide maltose (which consists of two glucose molecules).
water that contains significant amounts of dissolved solids.Here are our parameters for saline water:
Fresh water - Less than 1,000 parts per million (ppm)
Slightly saline water - From 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm
Moderatly saline water - From 3,000 ppm to 10,000 ppm
Highly saline water - From 10,000 ppm to 35,000 ppm
Gram-negative bacterium, occurring in many animals, especially poultry and swine. In the environment,salmonella can be found in water, soil, insects, factory and kitchen surfaces, animal fecal matter, and raw meats, poultry (including eggs) and seafood.
A mechanism of transmission of information (Action Potentials, APs) along a type of neuron.
One or more individual events or measurements selected from the output of a process for purposes of identifying characteristics and performance of the whole.
An unknown sample blank is an aliquot from a specimen which is used to measure the amount of nonspecific activity or the amount of endogenous analyte present in the specimen. The response from the activity blank is subtracted from the response of the sample before computing the specimen concentration. The concentration of the concentration blank is subtracted from the concentration of the sample to generate the specimen concentration.
Functional component of soybeans, soy foods and soy protein containing food which may lower LDL cholesterol and may contain anti-cancer enzymes.
An organism that acts as a decomposer by absorbing nutrients from dead organic matter.
Structure-activity relationship. The way in which altering the molecular structure of drugs alters their interaction with a receptor, enzyme, etc.
Rare inflammation of the lymph nodes and other tissues throughout the body.
A cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.
The specialized plasma membrane surrounding a muscle cell (muscle fiber); capable of propagating Action Potentials.
The fundamental, repeating unit of striated muscle, delimited by the Z lines.
A modified form of endoplasmic reticulum in striated muscle cells that stores calcium used to trigger contraction during stimulation.
Saturated fat (saturated fatty acid)
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton; all carbons contain a hydrogen, and therefore, no double bonds exist.
Stimulus intensity which results in the maximum sensitivity extent that can be described qualitatively.
A quantity that is defined by its magnitude only (e.g., energy, temperature); A quantity that has size but no direction.
A triangle with three unequal sides.
Scanning Electron Microscopy
A type of electron microscope that images the sample surface by scanning it with a high-energy beam of electrons in a raster (see Raster plot) scan pattern.
A Scatchard analysis is a computation of the number of binding sites and the affinity constants for each subclass of binder present plus a measurement of the amount of nonspecific binding.
Calculation of the potency of competitive antagonists according to the method of Arunlakshana and Schild (1959) This is a null method, i.e. it makes no assumptions about the nature of the coupling between receptor binding and the response, but simply assumes that any particular level of response is associated with a unique degree of occupation and activation of the receptors by the agonist. There are a number of other assumptions and criteria, the most important of which are that (a) the agonist acts only at a single receptor type; (b) the binding of both agonist and antagonist is competitive and reversible; (c) responses are measured when both agonist and antagonist are at equilibrium with the receptors; and (d) the antagonist causes parallel rightward shifts of the log agonist concentration-response curve with no depression of the maximum response. See Schild plot and Schild slope.
A graph of log (concentration ratio - 1) against log (antagonist concentration). An example is shown in Fig. C. The intercept on the log concentration axis is equal to the pA2 value, while the slope gives information about the nature of the antagonism.
The slope of a Schild plot should equal 1 if all of the assumptions underlying the method of analysis are fulfilled. A slope which is significantly greater than 1 may indicate positive cooperativity in the binding of the antagonist, depletion of a potent antagonist from the medium by receptor binding or non-specific binding (e.g. to glassware or partitioning into lipid), or lack of antagonist equilibrium. A slope which is significantly less than 1 may indicate negative cooperativity in the binding, or removal of agonist by a saturable uptake process, or it may arise because the agonist is acting at a second receptor type (this can also cause curved Schild plots). There are many other reasons why slopse differ from the theoretical value, but most of them are difficult to prove. See Kenakin (1987) for a thorough discussion. If the slope of a Schild plot is greater than 1, the calculated pA2 value will be an underestimate of the pKB value (i.e. the antagonist is less potent than expected). Conversely, if the slope is less than 1, the calculated pA2 value will overestimate the pKB value.
A depressive or manic syndrome that precedes or develops concurrently with psychotic symptoms incompatible with an affective disorder.
Schizoid personality disorder
Manifested by shyness, oversensitivity, social withdrawal, frequent daydreaming, advoidance of close competitive relationships and eccentricity.
A serious mental disorder characterized by verbal incoherence, severely impaired interpersonal relations, disturbance in thought processes, cognitive deficits, and inappropriate or blunted affect. The person may also exhibit hallucinations or delusions.
Clinical features are the same as seen in schizophrenia, but lasting less than six months and longer than one week.
Schizotypal personality disorder
The essential features are various oddities of thinking, perception communication, and behavior not severe enough to meet the criteria for schizophrenia.
A type of glial cell found in the peripheral nervous system that forms an nsulating layer called the myelin sheath around the axon of some neurons.
tough, opaque membrane of the eyebulb which maintains the size and form of the bulb and attaches to muscles that move the bulb; the whites of the eyes.
An abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
An area of decreased or absent vision surrounded by an area of less depressed or normal vision.
Screening (a library, in molecular genetics)
To screen a library is to select and isolate individual clones out of the mixture of clones.
One of the most commonly used orthopedic fixation devices. Screws are designed for different uses and for placement in different types of bone. Screws can be used as single standalone devices, as components of hardware constructs (e.g. plates with screws), or as separate devices complementing other hardware (e.g. interfragmentary screws and plates with screws for fracture fixation).
SDS-PAGE electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis)
A technique to separate proteins (and even DNA and RNA molecules) according only to their size.
1. A line that intersects a circle or a curve in two places.
The unit of measure of an angle that is 1/60 of a minute.
Intracellular substance (e.g. cyclic AMP or inositol phosphates), the concentration of which may be controlled by activation of membrane receptors and which can control further intracellular events (e.g. protein phosphorylation, neurotransmitter release or membrane polarisation).
Secondary active transport
Many amino acids and sugars are accumulated by cells in transport processes driven by ion gradients. This process, Secondary or Indirect active transport, uses downhill flow of an ion to pump some other molecule or ion against its gradient.
a battery that can be recharged
Increased responsiveness to mechanical stimuli only in a region of the body surrounding a region that has been recently subjected to painful stimuli.
Resistance to an antigen the second time it appears.
Second law of thermodynamics
The principle whereby every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein.
A chemical compound synthesized through the diversion of products of major metabolic pathways for use in defense by prey species
A member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat herbivores.
Secondary immune response
The immune response elicited when an animal encounters the same antigen at some later time. The secondary immune response is more rapid, of greater magnitude, and of longer duration than the primary immune response.
The rate at which all the heterotrophs in an ecosystem incorporate organic material into new biomass, which can be equated to chemical energy.
Secondary sex characteristics
Characteristics of animals that distinguish between the two sexes but that do not produce or convey gametes. Includes facial hair of the human male and enlarged hips and breasts of the female.
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages.
Secondary waste water treatment
treatment (following primary wastewater treatment) involving the biological process of reducing suspended, colloidal, and dissolved organic matter in effluent from primary treatment systems and which generally removes 80 to 95 percent of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and suspended matter. Secondary wastewater treatment may be accomplished by biological or chemical-physical methods. Activated sludge and trickling filters are two of the most common means of secondary treatment. It is accomplished by bringing together waste, bacteria, and oxygen in trickling filters or in the activated sludge process. This treatment removes floating and settleable solids and about 90 percent of the oxygen-demanding substances and suspended solids. Disinfection is the final stage of secondary treatment.
1. The discharge of molecules synthesized by the cell.
A region bounded by two radii of a circle and the arc whose endpoints lie on those radii.
Living in a fixed location, as with most plants, tunicates, sponges, etc.
Usually applied to material in suspension in water or recently deposited from suspension.
rock formed of sediment, and specifically: (1) sandstone and shale, formed of fragments of other rock transported from their sources and deposited in water; and (2) rocks formed by or from secretions of organisms, such as most limestone. Many sedimentary rocks show distinct layering, which is the result of different types of sediment being deposited in succession.
wastewater tanks in which floating wastes are skimmed off and settled solids are removed for disposal.
--(1) The slow movement of water through small cracks, pores, Interstices, etc., of a material into or out of a body of surface or subsurface water. (2) The loss of water by infiltration into the soil from a canal, ditches, laterals, watercourse, reservoir, storage facilities, or other body of water, or from a field.
The union of a point, A, and a point, B, and all the points between them.
A churning of food in the small intestine through muscular constriction of the intestinal wall.
A seizure is characterized by involuntary movement or a change in consciousness or behavior.
Seizures are symptoms of underlying disorders of the brain.
The process by which the forms of organisms in a population that are better adapted to the environmental conditions increase in frequency relative to less well-adapted forms over a number of generations.
The difference between two fitness values, representing a relative measure of selection against an inferior genotype.
A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
An environmental factor that favors the survival and reproduction of those genetic variants within a population that are better adapted to the environment.
Relative potency of a drug between two receptor subtypes for the same endogenous ligand. This is a relative rather than absolute term that should always be qualified (e.g. prazosin is 30-fold selective for <28>1-adrenoceptors relative to <28>2-adrenoceptors). Compare specificity.
The union of egg and sperm produced by a single hermaphroditic organism.
A screw that cuts its own thread holes in bone as it is screwed into place. Prior to inserting a screw in cortical bone, a guide hole is first drilled that has the same diameter as the core diameter of the screw to be inserted. For a nonself-tapping, a tap is then inserted which cuts the thread holes for the screw. The screw is then inserted. A self-tapping screw has one or more cutting edges at the screw tip that cut the threads holes in the side of the guide hole in which the screw is inserted. Thus, a separate tapping step is eliminated shortening operative time. See nonself-tapping screw.
Self supplied water
water withdrawn from a surface- or ground-water source by a user rather than being obtained from a public supply. An example would be homeowners getting their water from their own well.
The component of language most concerned with the meaning and understanding of language.
The fluid that is ejaculated by the male during orgasm; contains sperm and secretions from several glands of the male reproductive tract.
A three-part chamber of the inner ear that functions in maintaining equilibrium.
Semiconservative replication of DNA
A proposed model of DNA replication.
A valve located at the two exits of the heart, where the aorta leaves the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle.
A gland in males that secretes a fluid (a component of semen) that lubricates and nourishes sperm.
Highly coiled tubes in the testes in which sperm are produced.
A chronic, progressive dementia associated with generalized atrophy of the brain with the death of neurons due to unknown causes, although there are several promising theories under study (e.g., autoimmunity, slow virus, cholinergic deficiency).
Feeling stimuli which activate sensory organs of the body, such as touch, temperature, pressure and pain. Also seeing, hearing, smelling and tasting.
Refers to the mRNA sequence that is translated into protein.
A gene has two strands: the sense strand and the anti-sense strand. The Sense strand is, by definition, the same 'sense' as the mRNA; that is it can be translated exactly as the mRNA sequence can.
5' - ATG GGG CCA CGG CTG TGA - 3'
Met Gly Pro Arg Leu stop
The anti-sense strand will read as follows (note that the strand has been reversed and complemented):
5' - TCA CAG CCG TGG CCC CAT - 3'
The duplex DNA will pair as follows:
5' - ATGGGGCCACGGCTGTGA - 3'
3' - TACCCCGGAGCCGACACT - 5'
Note however that when the RNA is transcribed from this sequence, the ANTI-SENSE strand is used as the template for RNA polymerization. After all, the RNA must base-pair with its template strand, so the process of transcription produces the complement of the anti-sense strand.
The sensitivity of an test method is the lowest concentration that can be reliably measured using that test method.
Refers to all aspects of movement and sensation and the interaction of the two.
Sensory aphasia (Also referred to as "receptive aphasia")
Inability to understand the meaning of written, spoken, or tactile speech symbols because of disease or injury to the auditory and visual brain centers.
Interaction of two or more sensory processes in a manner that enhances the adaptiveness of the brain.
Refers to any one of the five sensory avenues for receiving information: seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling.
A neuron (nerve cell) that transmits information from external and internal sensory organs to the central nervous system.
A specialized structure that responds to specific stimuli from an animal's external or internal environment, converting the physical or chemical energy of the stimulus into a biological response that can be signalled by neurons to the central nervous system.
A seizure that is characterized primarily by visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, or emotional sensations.
Separation (in assays)
Separation is the process of physically separating the bound ligand from the free ligand before either fraction can be measured.
a tank used to detain domestic wastes to allow the settling of solids prior to distribution to a leach field for soil absorption. Septic tanks are used when a sewer line is not available to carry them to a treatment plant. A settling tank in which settled sludge is in immediate contact with sewage flowing through the tank, and wherein solids are decomposed by anaerobic bacterial action.
A systemic inflammatory response to infection that results in large-scale tissue destruction at sites far away from the original injury site.
A rare condition in which there is abnormal development in part of brain that can cause changes in a child’s eyes and also problems in the pituitary gland.
A partition or thin wall dividing two cavities or masses of softer tissue into compartments.
an open lagoon into which wastewater contaminated with solid pollutants is placed and allowed to stand. The solid pollutants suspended in the water sink to the bottom of the lagoon and the liquid is allowed to overflow out of the enclosure.
The linear arrangement of building blocks in biological macromolecules like DNA, RNA, protein and polysaccharides.
Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD)
A testing instrument which assesses receptive language skills or what the child understands. A receptive communication age is provided by the results of the test. It also assesses his/her expressive language skills or how a child expresses/communicates his/her thoughts. An expressive communication age is also provided by the results of the test.
Procedure for the linear comparison of two or more molecular sequences in order to identify those positions that are likely to have a common evolutionary origin.
Sequencing (of actions)
Reading, listening, expressing thoughts, describing events or contracting muscles in an orderly and meaningful manner.
Sequencing (of nucleotides)
Determination of the order of nucleotides (base sequences) in a DNA or RNA molecule or the order of amino acids in a protein.
Sequencing (of memory)
Storage and retrieval of information requiring
The sequence number of an unknown record is the order each unknown is placed in an unknown file.
Sequence tagged site (STS)
Short (200 to 500 base pairs) DNA sequence that has a single occurrence in the human genome and whose location and base sequence are known.
Used to combine with trace metals in the environment to render them inactive.
Serial processing (of sensory information)
The relaying and analysis of sensory information along a single pathway, with each higher stage of the pathway performing some relatively more complex processing.
The sum of a sequence.
Serious Emotional Disturbance/Disorder (SED)
When a child or adolescent exhibits behavioral, emotional and/or social impairment that consequently disrupts their academic and/or developmental progress, family and/or interpersonal relationships, and has impaired functioning that has continued for at least one year, or has an impairment of short duration and high severity.
Group of related microorganisms distinguished by its composition of antigens.
Attached; not free to move about.
A well defined group of objects.
sewage treatment plant
--a facility designed to receive the wastewater from domestic sources and to remove materials that damage water quality and threaten public health and safety when discharged into receiving streams or bodies of water. The substances removed are classified into four basic areas:
a system of underground pipes that collect and deliver wastewater to treatment facilities or streams.
The X and Y chromosomes in human beings that determine the sex of an individual.
Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)
A carrier protein that binds to the hormones testosterone and estradiol making them non-bioavailable.
Sex linked condition
A condition that is passed from parents to child through a sex chromosome. Mothers are carriers of the condition without having it themselves.
Sex linked genes
Genes located on one sex chromosome but not the other.
Sex linked trait
An inherited trait, such as color discrimination, determined by a gene located on a sex chromosome and that therefore shows a different pattern of inheritance in males and females.
A special case of polymorphism based on the distinction between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females.
A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents.
Selection based on variation in secondary sex characteristics, leading to the enhancement of sexual dimorphism.
A work setting that provides transitional and/or long-term employment in a controlled and protected working environment for those who are unable either to compete or to function in the open job market due to their disabilities.
Short bowel syndrome
Lack of major portions of the small bowel.
Fats used in the baking or frying of foods. Shortenings impart tender qualities to baked goods. Additives such as emulsifiers, antioxidants, anti-foaming agents, flavouring, etc may be present, depending on the intended use of the product.
Short Interfering RNA (siRNA)
Specific short sequences of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of 19-21 base pairs (bp) in length, which trigger degradation of messenger RNA (mRNA) possessing the same sequence (as those siRNAs) within a cell; as part of the cellular process known as RNA interference (RNAi).
Cloning of DNA fragments randomly generated from a genome; The practice of randomly clipping a larger DNA fragment into various smaller pieces, cloning everything, and then studying the resulting individual clones to figure out what happened.The technique for obtaining the desired gene involves "chopping up" the entire genetic complement of a cell using restriction enzymes, then attaching each (resultant) DNA fragment to a vector and transferring it into a bacterium, and finally screening those (engineered) bacteria to locate the bacteria that are producing the desired product (e.g., a protein)
A way of determining the sequence of a large DNA fragment.
A structure made up of two main bones: the scapula ( shoulder blade ) and the humerus (the long bone of the upper arm). The end of the scapula, called the glenoid, is a socket into which the head of the humerus fits, forming a flexible ball-and-socket joint . The scapula is an unusually shaped bone. It extends up and around the shoulder joint at the rear to create a roof called the acromion and around the shoulder joint at the front to constitute the coracoid process. The shoulder joint is cushioned by cartilage that covers the face of the glenoid socket and the head of the humerus. The joint is stabilized by a ring of fibrous cartilage around the glenoid socket that is called the labrum . Ligaments connect the bones of the shoulder and tendons join these bones to surrounding muscles. The biceps tendon attaches the biceps muscle to the shoulder and helps stabilize the joint. Four short muscles that originate on the scapula pass around the shoulder where their tendons fuse together to form the rotator cuff .
A vector capable of replicating in two unrelated species.
A procedure to draw off excessive fluid in the brain. A tube that is surgically inserted between two blood vessels, two spaces, or two organs. Its purpose is to drain excess fluid and relieve pressure.
Sickle-cell anemia (SCA)
An inherited disease that has a profound effect on the function and structure of red blood cells.
Sickle-cell trait (SCT)
Refers to a person who is a carrier of the sickle-cell anemia, but does not actually suffer the disease effects.
Side Scatter (SSC) (in flow cytometry)
Light scattered at a 90 degree angle as a cell passes through the laser beam. This measurement is related to the internal granularity or complexity of a particle
A stretch of amino acids on polypeptides that targets proteins to specific destinations in eukaryotic cells.
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)
The difference between the level of a stimulus or signal and the level of the background noise against which it is presented.
Signal transduction cascade (or pathway)
The sequence of processes or reactions between the application or arrival of a signal or stimulus and the production of a response to that stimulus or signal.
Signal variation is the variation in the measurement of the tracer label from assay run to assay run.
An external sensory stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern.
Two polygons are similar if their corresponding sides are proportional.
Similarity in biology refers to the relatedness of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences and protein structures.
Simple harmonic motion
A repeating motion about a central equilibrium point (pendulum, weighted spring).
The practice of mimicking some or all of the behavior of one system with a different, dissimilar system.
A group of equations that are all true at the same time.
In a right triangle, the length of a side opposite an angle divided by the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle.
Hereditary disorder caused by a mutant allele of a single gene (e.g., Duchenne muscular dystrophy, retinoblastoma, sickle cell disease).
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging.
A technique used to image the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the human body.The most common tracer is 99mTc labeled hexamethylpropylene amineoxime (HMPAO) which can cross the blood-brain barrier. Uptake in the brain is proportional to cerebral blood flow at the time of IV administration. Gamma cameras detect the radiation (gamma rays) released in 360 degrees and create multiplanar images
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
Variations in the sequence of DNA among individuals that are present in humans with a frequency of about once in every 1000 bases, and useful in assessing the patterns of inheritance in genetic linkage studies.
Sinoatrial (SA) node
The pacemaker of the heart, located in the wall of the right atrium.
A family of gray-scale visual patterns that's widely used as a stimulus in visual neuroscience. A stimulus design based on the Fourier theory of signal analysis. Since any visual image can be mathematically decomposed as the sum of many sinusoidal gratings, sinusoidal gratings are, in a way, the basic "vocabulary" of images. It is therefore important to understand how the brain’s neurons respond to them.
a depression in the Earth's surface caused by dissolving of underlying limestone, salt, or gypsum. Drainage is provided through underground channels that may be enlarged by the collapse of a cavern roof.
Small interefering RNA.
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.
The two clades (groups) resulting from the splitting of a single lineage.
Striated muscle, attached to the skeleton and limbs and generally responsible for the voluntary movements of the body.
Two lines that are not in the same plane.
Skewness is an asymmetrical frequency distribution in which the values are concentrated on one side of the central tendency and trail out on the other side.
In survey research, the sequence of questions asked and skipped.
The temporary stoppage of breathing during sleep, often resulting in daytime sleepiness. The most common form of sleep apnea is obstructive sleep apnea. In obstructive sleep apnea, the muscles of the soft palate around the base of the tongue and the uvula relax, obstructing the airway. The airway obstruction causes the level of oxygen in the blood to fall (hypoxia), increases the stress on the heart, elevates blood pressure, and prevents the patient from entering REM sleep, the restful and restorative stage of sleep. In other words, sleep apnea causes deprivation of quality sleep.
Sliding filament model
The theory explaining how muscle contracts.It is based on changes within a sarcomere, the basic unit of muscle organization, stating that thin (actin) filaments slide across thick (myosin) filaments, shortening the sarcomere; the shortening of all sarcomeres in a myofibril shortens the entire myofibril.
The slope of a line is the tangent of that line; The slope of a line is the change in the vertical coordinates/the change in the horizontal coordinates of any two points on the line. The tangent is the vertical distance of any two points on a line divided by the horizontal distance of the same two points. The slope in a linear regression is expressed as coefficient b.
Similar to a dot blot, but the analyte is put onto the membrane using a slot-shaped template.The template produces a consistently shaped spot, thus decreasing errors and improving the accuracy of the analysis.
Small for gestational age (SGA)
Low birth weight for a gestational age
The region of the digestive system immediately after the stomach.
The functions of the small intestine include
(see Large Intestine)
Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP)
One of a variety of small particles in the cell nucleus, composed of RNA and protein molecules. Its functions are not fully understood, but some form parts of spliceosomes, active in RNA splicing.
Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier (SUMO)
A "partner protein" which readily fuses with certain other protein molecules and causes: (a) enhanced expression of those other protein molecules, (b) enhanced solubility of those other protein molecules, (c) correct folding of those other protein molecules.In some cases, the SUMO protein binds to histones (i.e., certain proteins complexed-with DNA in chromsomes) of chromosomes/genes across an organism's genome; thereby repressing the transcription of many of the genes across that genome in order to protect it (e.g., from cancer). Such a SUMO-binding process is called sumoylation.When sumoylation occurs in applicable plant tissues (i.e., those containing receptors for abscisic acid), it negatively regulates (or even halts) the seed germination and/or root growth which normally results from abscisic acid signaling
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
A type of muscle lacking the striations of skeletal and cardiac muscle because of the uniform distribution of myosin filaments in the cell.
Small nuclear RNA.Forms complexes with proteins to form snRNPs; involved in RNA splicing, polyadenylation reactions, other unknown functions (probably)
Small Nuclear RiboNucleoProtein particles (“snerps”).Complexes between small nuclear RNAs and proteins, and which are involved in RNA splicing and polyadenylation reactions
SNP, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
A position in a genomic DNA sequence that varies from one individual to another.
A hierarchical pattern of social organization involving domination of some members of a group by other members in a relatively orderly and long-lasting pattern.
The study of social behavior based on evolutionary theory.
A term sometimes used to describe persons with extreme disregard for and hostility toward society. A person who is sociopathic is aggressively antisocial and shows no remorse.
Chemical preservative that is particularly effective against yeasts.
Chemical preservative that is effective against moulds and yeasts.
Salt used in smoked or cured fish and in meat-curing preparation. It acts as a preservative and colour fixative. Can combine with chemicals in the stomach to form nitrosamine, a carcinogenic substance.
A special transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that transports sodium out of and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.
A three dimensional object that completely encloses a volume of space.
Solid Phase (in assays)
Binder or ligand can be absorbed onto solid phase surfaces, such as microtiter wells, magnetic particles, or plastic beads. This immobilized reactant can then capture ligand or binder from the liquid phase. The soluble free fraction can then be washed away.
Type of dietary fiber found in psyllium, cereals, oatmeal, apples, citrus fruits, beans and other foods which increases the viscosity in the gut and acts to reduce high blood cholesterol levels which decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Solute, solvent and salvation
Solute: The substance dissolved in a solution.
A method closely related to RNase protection, designed to measure the levels of a specific mRNA species in a complex population of RNA. An excess of radioactive probe is allowed to hybridize to the RNA, then single-strand specific nuclease is used to destroy the remaining unhybridized probe and RNA. The "protected" probe is separated from the degraded fragments, and the amount of radioactivity in it is proportional to the amount of mRNA in the sample which was capable of hybridization. This can be a very sensitive detection method.
Any cell in the body except gametes (sperm and eggs) and their precursors.
Somatic cell mutation
Mutation in a cell that is acquired during the lifetime of an organism and which cannot be genetically inherited by offspring.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
A technique that combines an enucleated egg and the nucleus of a somatic cell to make an embryo. SCNT can be used for therapeutic or reproductive purposes, but the initial stage that combines an enucleated egg and a somatic cell nucleus is the same.
Somatic nervous system
The branch of the motor division of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system composed of motor neurons that carry signals to skeletal muscles in response to external stimuli.
Somatic (adult) stem cells
A relatively rare undifferentiated cell found in many organs and differentiated tissues with a limited capacity for both self renewal (in the laboratory) and differentiation.
Sensory activity having its origin elsewhere (e.g., the skin, muscles, internal organs) than in the special sense organs (i.e., structures such as the eyes and ears) and conveying information to the brain about the state of the body proper and its immediate environment.
A hormone, produced by the pituitary gland, that stimulates protein synthesis and promotes the growth of bone; also known as growth hormone.
S1 end mapping
A technique to determine where the end of an RNA transcript lies with respect to its template DNA (the gene).
An enzyme which digests only single-stranded nucleic acids.
A computer picture of areas inside the body created by bouncing high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs.
Sugar alcohol, suitable for diabetics.
A technique which allows the detection of a specific DNA sequence present in a large, complex sample of DNA; involves transfer by absorption of DNA fragments separated in electrophoretic gels to membrane filters for detection of specific base sequences by radiolabeled complementary probes.
A wave of pressure travelling through an elastic medium (e.g., air, water) by mechanical disturbance (vibration) of molecules of medium
Process in which food is prepared, vacuum packed, cooked to pasteurise (sterilise) the food and chilled.
Procedure which transfers elecrophoretically separated DNA fragments on an agarose gel to nitrocellulose filters for detection by hybridization with a labeled probe complementary to the sequence of interest; the position on the filter of the probe, when exposed to x-ray film, appears as a band on an autoradiogram
A chamber that is attached to a metered dose inhaler (MDI) to help reduce the velocity of the aerosol and stabilize the particle size by removing larger particles from suspension
Lengths of DNA between genes (especially rRNA genes) which are not transcribed into mRNA
Damage to the telencephalon resulting in stiffness of two extremities on the same side. There may be involvement of all four extremities with one side more involved than the other. This is referred to as bilateral hemiplegra or, occasionally, as spastic quadriplegia.
Involvement of all four extremities. Damage to telencephalon resulting in a poverty of movement due to increased stiffness equal in all four extremities equally.
An involuntary increase in muscle tone (tension) that occurs following injury to the brain or spinal cord, causing the muscles to resist being moved. Resistance of a limb to passive stretch due to increased tone in either flexors or extensors (usually extensors) but not both. Characteristics may include increase in deep tendon reflexes, resistance to passive stretch, clasp knife phenomenon, and clonus. Increased muscle tone (hypertonic), involuntary resistance of weak muscle caused by passive range of motion followed by sudden relaxation of muscle, associated with exaggeration of reflexes. Causes stiffness, awkward movements, and loss of voluntary muscle control.
Rinsing grains to extract residual sugar that clings to the grains after they have been mashed. Warm water is poured over the grains and hops above a strainer.
Ability to perceive the construction of an object in both two and three dimensions.
A measure of how rapidly a stimulus changes across space.
(1) Of cells, having particular functions in a multicellular organism.
The observable effects on a body in motion.
The origin of new species in evolution; The splitting of an evolutionary lineage producing (usually) two new, separate species, which thus begin their own, unique evolutionary historiesA group of organisms that are able to interbreed all belong to the same species. It follows then that organisms that are unable to interbreed belong to separate species. Speciation is the central process of macroevolution, the evolution of novel forms.
A group of organisms (individuals) that can interbreed and reproduce with each other; A group of organisms belong to the same biological species, if they are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring; A group of organisms that share a common gene pool as well as a unique evolutionary history distinct from other groups of organisms.
The number and relative abundance of species in a biological community.
The number of species in a biological community.
A theory maintaining that species living the longest and generating the greatest number of species determine the direction of major evolutionary trends
Species homologue (or species variant)
Relative potency of a drug between two receptor subtypes for the same endogenous ligand. This is a relative rather than absolute term that should always be qualified (e.g. prazosin is 30-fold selective for <28>1-adrenoceptors relative to <28>2-adrenoceptors). Compare specificity.
Characteristic of (and limited to) a particular species.
Unique; for example, the proteins in a given organism, the enzyme catalyzing a given reaction, or the antibody to a given antigen.
The specific activity of a tracer is the activity of the label per unit mass of the labeled material.
A measure of the ability of water to conduct an electrical current as measured using a 1-cm cell and expressed in units of electrical conductance, i.e., Siemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius.
Measure of the density of a liquid. The ratio of the density of a body to the density of water, the latter being taken as unity.
Ability of a material to store heat; The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of a substance to change its temperature 1°C..
The specificity of a binder is the ability of its binding site to distinguish between the ligand to which the binder is specific and other compounds. Relative potency of a drug between the receptors for two different endogenous ligands (e.g. sulpiride is specific for dopamine receptors when compared with 5HT receptors). Compare selectivity.
Specific learning disability
A disorder in understanding or using spoken or written language, characterized by imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. The term includes students with conditions such as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia. The term does not include students who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps; mental retardation; or environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage.
A specimen is standard calibrator material, known control material, or material from an unknown subject which is collected for subsequent measurement.
A spectrophotometer is a detector instrument that measures the amount of monchromatic light passing through a solution by means of an adjustable monochromator such as a prism or diffraction grating.
The study of spectra, that is, the dependence of physical quantities on frequency.
Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.
Speech-language Pathology Services
A continuum of services including prevention, identification, diagnosis, consultation, and treatment of patients regarding speech, language, oral and pharyngeal sensorimotor function.
Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) Test
A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly
Synthesis phase of the cell cycle, during interphase, in which the cell duplicates its DNA.
The set of all points in space that are a fixed distance from a given point.
Delicate pointed structures lying external to the body and usually pointed away from it.Like spines, but invariably excreted and more delicate.
Diagram representing a product's sensory profile. Measured intensities are plotted on radial lines, emanating from a central point.
A technique to distinguish the action potentials (the “spikes”) produced nearly-simultaneously by a number of neurons close to a recording electrode
Spina bifida (Also known as myelomeningocele)
It is a birth defect of the backbone, often called "open spine". It results from a more common and usually less severe form of failure of proper fusion of the neural tube due where there is failure of the neural arches of the vertebrae to meet, fuse, and enclose the spinal cord.
The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies within the vertebral canal and from which the spinal nerves emerge. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves originate in the spinal cord: 8 cervical , 12 thoracic , 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. The spinal cord and the brain constitute the central nervous system ( CNS ). The spinal cord consists of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brain. Like the brain, the spinal cord is covered by three connective-tissue envelopes called the meninges . The space between the outer and middle envelopes is filled with cerebrospinal fluid ( CSF ), a clear colorless fluid that cushions the spinal cord against jarring shock. Also known simply as the cord.
Operative method of strengthening and limiting motion of the spinal column.
An inflammation of the membranes of the spinal cord.
Nerves of the peripheral nervous system (and therefore nerves connecting to the body) that originate from or terminate in the spinal cord.
Narrowing of the spaces in the spine, resulting in compression of the nerve roots or spinal cord by bony spurs or soft tissues, such as disks, in the spinal canal. This occurs most often in the lumbar spine (in the low back) but also occurs in the cervical spine (in the neck) and less often in the thoracic spine (in the upper back).
1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects the spinal cord. The spine can be categorized according to level of the body: i.e., cervical spine (neck), thoracic spine (upper and middle back), and lumbar spine (lower back). See also vertebral column. 2) Any short prominence of bone. The spines of the vertebrae protrude at the base of the back of the neck and in the middle of the back. These spines protect the spinal cord from injury from behind.
Measurement of ventilatory ability (respiration) by assessing lung capacity and flow, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air.
Variants in the mature mRNA spliced from a single gene, resulting in different proteins with different size and functionality, from the one gene.
A process during protein synthesis where the mRNA cuts out the intron sequences and strings together the exon (coding) sequences derived from a DNA template during transcription. Usually, eukaryotic genes consist of several exons/introns and sometimes not all exons are used in the final mature RNA. Ultimately, a single gene can be spliced into more than one mature mRNA producing splice variants. Splice variants give rise to proteins with different size and functionality.
Pertaining to the vertebrae
The recovery which occurs as damage to body tissues heals.
Unicellular body produced by plants, fungi, and some microorganisms; A single cell that is dispersed as a reproductive unit, or that encapsulates a cell during unfavorable environmental conditions; in organisms with an alternation of generations; the products of meiosis are spores. Often a resting stage, encased in a protective coat, adapted to resist heat, desiccation, or other unfavorable environmental conditions, e.g., inactive or dormant state of some rod-shaped bacteria. It is the part of mould that reproduces and causes the mould to spread. It is the mould's version of a seed.
The phase of the life cycle of sexually reproducing plants and algae in which the spores are produced. The diploid stage in the life cycle of an organism undergoing an alternation of generations. The sporophyte is multicellular and develops from the diploid zygote. The mature sporophyte meiotically produces haploid spores that later generate the gametophyte generation.
The process of spore development.
of a number, x, is the number that, when multiplied by itself gives the number, x.
Simple Sequence Repeat. See 'Microsatellite'.
Substances which allow food compounds which do not mix well to be mixed and stay in a homogeneous state.
A form of transfection experiment designed to produce permanent lines of cultured cells with a new gene inserted into their genome.Usually this is done by linking the desired gene with a "selectable" gene, i.e. a gene which confers resistance to a toxin (like G418, aka Geneticin). Upon putting the toxin into the culture medium, only those cells which incorporate the resistance gene will survive, and essentially all of those will also have incorporated the experimenter's gene.
Selection favouring individuals in the middle of the distribution of phenotypes in a population and disfavouring the extremes. Also called normalizing selection.
Performing exams and tests to learn the extent of the cancer within the body, especially whether the disease has spread from the original site to other parts of the body. It is important to know the stage of the disease in order to plan the best treatment.
Standard (in assays)
Standard samples are aliquots of calibration specimens containing predetermined quantities of the analyte. The response of each standard, along with the standard's predetermined concentration, is used to construct a standard curve. From this standard curve, sample concentrations can be computed using the response from the sample.
An immunoassay standard curve is a curve (or straight line) produced by mathematically fitting an equation to the data from a series of dilutions of an analyte of known concentration. The data is a plot of the response versus the concentration of each dilution.
A measure of the spread of a sampling statistic, denoted by the Greek letter (sigma) for the estimated standard deviation. The standard deviation is the square root of the variance.
The length of a fish measured from the tip of the snout to the end of the fleshy part of the body. This measurement is preferred by many ichthyologists because it ignores the tail fin, which can often be damaged in specimens.
Functional component found in wood oils, corn, soy and wheat which may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol levels.
A surgical process that replaces defective stapes in the ear with a prosthetic device.
A term used loosely to refer to refractile masses of polysaccharides, consisting of long chains of glucose units, which are accumulated as storage products in the cell.
The sequence of nucleotides (codon) on a messenger RNA molecule where protein synthesis begins. The start codon nucleotide sequence is AUG.
Describes the situation where objects carry a charge.
A period of little or no discernible change in a lineage.
Static magnetic field
Magnetic fields that have constant intensity over time and whose field direction is constant. The intensity varies periodically according to the frequency and type of wave in the magnet.
Statins (HMG-CoA Reductase)
A class of drugs that lower the level of cholesterol by reducing the body's production of cholesterol.
The mathematical procedure to describe probabilities and the random or non-random distribution of matter or occurrence of events.
Seizures that occur in series without intervening recovery periods.
A process in biochemistry that refers to situations of high activity even though the overall structure and composition of cells seems not to change.
Saturated fatty acid containing 18 carbon atoms in its molecular backbone that is essentially neutral in effect on coronary heart disease in humans (i.e., doesn’t appreciably increase low-density lipoproteins in the bloodstream).
Cells with the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells.
All the taxa in a clade preceding a major cladogenesis event.
A narrowing in the diameter of a body canal due to new bone formation
Conditions characterized by abnormal gross motor behaviors (tics)
Chemical that destroys micro-organisms but does not remove soils.
Incapable of reproduction.
The method used to render a material free from living organisms.
After digestion of a DNA with certain restriction enzymes, the ends left have one strand overhanging the other to form a short (typically 4 nt) single-stranded segment. This overhang will easily re-attach to other ends like it, and are thus known as "sticky ends".
Essentially meaning Random; Referring to patterns or processes resulting from random factors, a stochastic event is based on random behavior.
Velocity at which a sphere will rise or fall in a liquid varies as the square of its diameter. For example, a fat globule with a diameter of 2 microns will rise 4 times faster than a fat globule with a diameter of 1 micron.
A surgical opening in the abdomen that allows drainage of either urine or stool into disposable bags.
A type of cyst, with a siliceous wall and a single plugged opening, formed by some chrysomonads (stramenopiles).
Stop (or Termination) codon
The sequence of nucleotides (codon) on a messenger RNA molecule where protein synthesis stops.
Deviation of eye movement which prevents the two eyes from moving in a parallel fashion. Crossed eyes (internal) or eyes that look outward (external).
The deformation of a body under an applied load.
The measure of the force acting on a body.
Places where stress lines from applied forces concentrate within a structure. Breakage is most likely to occur at these places. In long bones or orthopedic plates, for example, stress lines from forces applied at the ends tend to produce uniform cross sectional stress lines. Discontinuities, such as screw holes, redistribute these forces concentrating them close to the holes where fracture is most likely to occur.
The removal of forces or stresses that normally act on bone. Stress shielding eventually leads to osteopenia. A common site for stress shielding is the proximal femoral diaphysis after placement of a femoral prosthesis. The more tightly the stem of the prosthesis fits into the distal medullary canal, the greater the shift of body weight to the prosthetic stem from the proximal femoral cortex. This causes loss of the normal remodeling forces above the level at which the stem is fixated against the endosteal surface of the medullary canal resulting in osteopenia of the proximal femoral diaphysis.
A term used to describe the conditions of hybridization.
A block in the brain’s blood supply due to cerebral ischemia (ischemic stroke) or hemorrhage (hemorrhagic stroke) causing the sudden onset of neurological symptoms. Stroke can be caused by the rupture of a blood vessel, a clot, or pressure on a blood vessel (as by a tumor). Without oxygen, neurons in the affected area die and the part of the body controlled by those cells cannot function. A stroke can result in loss of consciousness and death. The symptoms of stroke include sudden numbness or weakness (usually on one side of the body), visual impairment, loss of balance or coordination, and difficulty speaking or comprehending speech.
Non-blood cells derived from blood organs, such as bone marrow or fetal liver, which are capable of supporting growth of blood cells in vitro.
The high resolution structure of a molecule refers to its atomic organization in three-dimensional space. It is either obtained from analysis of diffraction patterns of high energy radiation (X-rays, electron waves) or nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR). Structural information has an important place in biological studies at the molecular level, because structures can be used to elucidate the detailed mechanism of a chemical reaction, a biological binding events such as hormone signaling or immunological defenses, or nutrient transport (absorption) across intestinal epithelial cell layers and cell membranes. The structural analysis of DNA in 1953 has helped understand the mechanism of replication of genetic information during reproduction as well as the mechanism of genetic encoding, reading (transcription), and synthesis (translation)of amino acid sequences in proteins and enzymes
Structure Activity Realtionship by NMR (SAR by NMR)
A means for researchers in pharmaceutical companies to utilize NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) to build the structure-activity model (e.g., of a "candidate pharmaceutical" molecule) for interactions with its target molecule (e.g., cell receptors). In SAR by NMR, NMR is utilized to detect even weak binding of ligands (fragments of the pharmaceutical candidate molecule) to receptor, then the ligands which successfully bind-to-target are assembled-together into an optimized-to-target pharmaceutical molecule.
All the information collected at a single time or for a single purpose or by a single principal investigator. A study may consist of one or more datasets and one or more files .
An interruption in the rhythm of speech characterized by hesitations, repetitions or prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases, for example: cow...boy, tuh-tuh-tuh-table, or sssun. Stuttering is recognized as a language disorder.
Blood in, or bleeding into, the space under the arachnoid membrane, most commonly from trauma or from rupture of an aneurysm.
If you have a cloned piece of DNA (say, inserted into a plasmid) and you need unlimited copies of only a part of it, you might "sub-clone" it. This involves starting with several million copies of the original plasmid, cutting with restriction enzymes, and purifying the desired fragment out of the mixture. That fragment can then be inserted into a new plasmid for replication. It has now been subcloned.
Transferring cultured cells, with or without dilution, from one culture vessel to another.
Beneath the dura mater, the outermost membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
A blood clot trapped under the dura mater, the outermost membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Change, when heated, from a solid state to a vapour without going through the liquid state.
A subpopulation distribution is a frequency distribution of the analyte concentrations of all of the members of a subset of unknowns grouped according to related characteristics (e.g., sex and age).
A set, B, is a subset of another set, A, if every element in B is also an element of A.
Subtypes of receptor are those which, in a single species, are activated by the same family of endogenous ligands but exhibit sufficient differences in their pharmacological properties or molecular structure to justify being classified separately. Traditionally, subtypes have been identified using drugs which can selectively activate them or antagonise the effects of agonists with markedly different potencies (the usual rule of thumb is that there should be at least a 10-fold difference in antagonist affinity, i.e. one log unit difference in pKB value, when postulating the existence of a novel receptor subtype (Kenakin et al., 1992)). Consequently, subtypes can only be identified when pharmacological tools are available. Molecular biological techniques have now determined the amino-acid sequence of many receptor proteins, and hence the degree of homology between receptor types to be measured. However, there is no established rule which differentiates receptor subtypes simply on the basis of the number of amino-acids which differ between them. Compare species homologue.
The only low-calorie sweetener that is made from sugar.
A small flexible catheter that is used to suction the airway.
Ingredients used to add sweet flavours to food. Those often used instead of sugars include sorbitol, mamitol, and xylitol. Many fruits and vegetables contain sugar alcohols naturally. They are also found in some sugarless gum, hard candies, jams and jellies. Besides adding sweetness, sugar alcohols also add texture, help foods stay moist, prevent browning when food is heated and give a cooling effect to the taste of food. They supply four calories per gram, but are absorbed slowly and incompletely and thus require little or no insulin for metabolism. They are not cavity-producing because they are not metabolized by bacteria that produce cavities.
Dry and hard to the touch, sugar bloom is the result of surface moisture dissolving sugar in the chocolate and subsequent recrystallization of the sugar on the chocolate surface. Visible as a dull white film on the surface of the chocolate. Typically caused by cold chocolate being exposed to a warm humid environment with resultant condensation forming on the product. A visual and textural defect only. The product is fine to eat.
Used to preserve the colour of foods such as dried fruits and vegetable, and to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in fermented foods such as wine.
Functional component of cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale, horseradish) which provides the health benefits of neutralizing free radicals and possibly reducing the risk of cancer.
The result of adding.
Summation, Temporal or Spatial (of Post-synaptic potentials)
Different ways of summing the Post-synaptic potentials (PSPs) produced by a cell in response to input from a neuron to sum.
Summation (of muscle contractions)
The addition of individual muscle twitch contractions to produce a larger contraction and more force.
The process in which the binding of a ligand to its receptor leads to a greater than normal response.
A free radical form of molecular oxygen (O2Ÿ-).
Lying on one's back.
Movement of the forearm so that the palm is turned forward or upward.
Two angles are supplementary if their sum is 180 degrees.
Medicine contained in a capsule which is inserted into the rectum so that the medicine can be absorbed into the blood stream.
Suppressive gene interactions
Suppressive drug interactions are when one antibiotic can actually help bacterial cells to grow faster in the presence of another.
Proteins on the outside surface of a cell that are unique to certain cell types and that can be visualized using antibodies or other detection methods.
The attraction of molecules to each other on a liquid's surface. Thus, a barrier is created between the air and the liquid.
Fluid secreted by cells of the alveoli that reduces the surface tension of pulmonary fluids.It contributes to the elastic properties of pulmonary tissue.
A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity by operative or manual methods. A medical doctor specialized in the removal of organs, masses and tumors and in doing other procedures using a knife (scalpel). The definition of a "surgeon" has begun to blur in recent years as surgeons have begun to minimize the cutting, employ new technologies that are "minimally invasive," use scopes, etc.
The word "surgery" has multiple meanings. It is the branch of medicine concerned with diseases and conditions which require or are amenable to operative procedures. Surgery is the work done by a surgeon. By analogy, the work of an editor wielding his pen as a scalpel is s form of surgery. A surgery in England (and some other countries) is a physician's or dentist's office.
Non-pathogenic species and strain responding to a particular treatment in a manner equivalent to a pathogenic species and strain. The surrogate allows biological verification of the treatment without introducing pathogens into a food processing area. For example, PA 3679 is used as a surrogate microbe for Clostridium botulinum in thermal process validation. Listeria innocua Is a possible surrogate for L. monocytogenes.
very fine soil particles that remain in suspension in water for a considerable period of time without contact with the bottom. Such material remains in suspension due to the upward components of turbulence and currents and/or by suspension.
the ratio of the mass of dry sediment in a water-sediment mixture to the mass of the water-sediment mixture. Typically expressed in milligrams of dry sediment per liter of water-sediment mixture.
the quantity of suspended sediment passing a point in a stream over a specified period of time. When expressed in tons per day, it is computed by multiplying water discharge (in cubic feet per second) by the suspended-sediment concentration (in milligrams per liter) and by the factor 0.0027.
Solids that are not in true solution and that can be removed by filtration.
Feeding on suspended particles.
The unit for quantifying the sedimentation coefficient of macromolecules.
Scale that uses pictures / symbols instead of words.
Living in association with another organism, normally to the mutual advantage of both or to the advantage of one - the other being unaffected.
Two points are symmetric with respect to a third point if the segments joining them to the third point are equal. Two points are symmetric with respect to a line if the line is the perpendicular bisector of the segment joining the points.
Sympathetic nervous system
A branch of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS).
A shared ancestral character state (plesiomorphy).
Symmetrical Standard Curve
A symmetrical standard curve is one which yields a sigmoidal curve with both asymptotes elongated equally when the response of each standard is plotted against the logarithm of its respective concentration.
Species or populations occupying the same geographic area.
A mechanism for moving (transporting) two small molecules and/or ions in the same direction across a cell membrane
Systematic error is the component of total error which is due to changes in the test method.
A character which is derived, and because it is shared by the taxa under consideration, is used to infer common ancestry (apomorphy).
Syncytium (Plural = Syncitia)
Multinucleated mass of cytoplasm.
Effect that is achieved by the combination of two or more substances or organisms which neither alone could accomplish.
Bleeding of gels due to mechanical damage or too firm gellification (shrinking).
The process of union of two gametes; sometimes called fertilization.
A fluid filled cavity in the spinal cord.
The study of the historical evolutionary and genetic relationships among organisms and of their phenotypic similarities and differences.
A generic term for the native or internal storage format used by statistical software.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
(SLE or Lupus) An autoimmune disease characterized by acute and chronic inflammation of various tissues of the body
The synapse is a specialized portion of a neuron or nerve cell that is used for cell to cell communication with other neurons and muscle cells. The chemical synapse contains packaged neurotransmitters that can be released upon an electrical signal (action potential) reaching the synapse from the dendrites and cell body of the neuron, where action potentials originate (where synapses of other neurons interact with the signaling cell). A neuron can have multiple synapses, often with different signaling properties being excitatory or inhibitory synapses. Multiple synapses signaling to a receiving neuron or muscle can strengthen a stimulus or inhibition by activating some or all of the synapses through addition of signaling strength. In addition to chemical synapses, electrical synapses are propagating an action potential signal without a neurotransmitter, but directly by coupling membranes of adjacent cells using gap junctions. The feature of both chemical and electrical synapses allows the signal to propagate unidirectional. The signal cannot reverse. However, feedback signals between the signaling and receiving cell to strengthen or weaken the synaptic interaction, a process called synaptic plasticity.
|Syndrome||A set of signs and symptoms that tend to occur together and which reflect the presence of a particular disease or an increased chance of developing a particular disease.|
The most movable type of joint. The bones are covered by connective tissue, the interior of which is filled with synovial fluid, and the ends of the bones are covered with cartilage.
The order and way in which words and sequences of words are combined into phrases, clauses, and sentences (rules of grammar).